Table 1

Demographics of patients and clinical factors associated with radiographic damage in ankylosing spondylitis (AS)

Patients with AS (n=444)Factors associated with final mSASSS*†
EstimateSEP value
Age at enrolment, years31.4 (25.5–37.2)0.0070.0034.13×10−2
Male sex401 (90.3)0.1380.0940.142
Symptom duration at enrolment, years8.5 (4.0–14.0)0.0100.0041.14×10−2
Follow-up duration, years9.6 (7.9–11.3)0.0380.0092.14×10−5
HLA-B27 positivity427 (96.2)0.0870.1300.504
Family history of AS30 (6.8)0.0780.0970.424
Uveitis189 (42.6)0.1570.0501.95×10−3
Peripheral joint involvement199 (44.8)−0.2460.0546.85×10−6
Inflammatory bowel disease4 (0.9)0.1640.2580.526
Psoriasis15 (3.4)−0.0160.1350.903
Ever smoker†292 (66.1)0.1300.0592.72×10−2
Use of anti-TNF277 (62.4)0.0560.0530.287
Use of NSAIDs439 (98.9)0.2200.2320.343
Baseline mSASSS7.7 (5.5–16.8)0.7960.0353.22×10−75
  • Results are expressed as median (IQR) and n (%).

  • *Log (mSASSS+1) value was used.

  • †Smoking data were available for 442 patients.

  • HLA, human leucocyte antigen; mSASSS, modified stoke ankylosing spondylitis spinal score; NSAIDs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug; TNF, tumour necrosis factor.