Table 2

Multivariable ordinal logistic regression analysis of factors associated with COVID-19 severity (primary model, all patients)

N total5045
N deaths/hospitalisations without death/neither89/736/4220
N deaths/hospitalisations without death/neitherOR95% CI
Male sex (vs female)57/419/2130 1.54 1.30 1.83
Pandemic time period
 Until 15 June 202045/395/12851(Reference)
 16 June 2020–31 December 202028/217/2018 0.42 0.34 0.51
 1 January 2021 and later16/124/917 0.52 0.41 0.67
 Hypertension alone (vs no hypertension, no CVD)28/242/847 1.25 1.01 1.55
 CVD alone (vs no hypertension, no CVD)7/38/76 1.87 1.21 2.90
 CVD and hypertension (vs no hypertension, no CVD)21/63/1361.410.982.02
 COPD or asthma21/87/257 1.75 1.33 2.31
 Other lung disease11/34/55 2.54 1.64 3.93
 Chronic kidney disease14/42/46 2.32 1.50 3.58
 Obesity alone (vs no obesity, no diabetes)11/138/676 1.35 1.07 1.70
 Diabetes mellitus alone (vs no obesity, no diabetes)15/102/212 1.84 1.38 2.45
 Obesity and diabetes mellitus (vs no obesity, no diabetes)14/61/162 1.89 1.34 2.68
 Cancer and known smoking habits (vs no cancer, never smoked)4/29/571.130.681.88
 Cancer and unknown smoking habits (vs no cancer, never smoked)5/7/13 2.89 1.19 6.97
 No cancer and ever smoked or unknown smoking habits (vs no cancer, never smoked)38/281/19330.870.711.06
Rheumatic disease
 Psoriatic arthritis51/392/18501(Reference)
 Axial spondyloarthritis26/229/15761.070.861.33
 Psoriasis (without arthritis)12/115/794 0.49 0.37 0.65
 No DMARD therapy21/128/5731(Reference)
 TNF inhibitors24/248/2026 0.57 0.44 0.73
 IL-17 inhibitors2/88/520 0.62 0.45 0.87
 IL-23/IL-12+23 inhibitors5/58/344 0.67 0.45 0.98
 JAK inhibitors7/10/451.580.833.01
Disease activity (DA) and glucocorticoids (GCs)
 Remission/low DA, no GCs57/516/33581(Reference)
 Remission/low DA, GCs13/59/177 1.97 1.39 2.79
 Moderate/high DA, no GCs15/130/604 1.39 1.09 1.76
 Moderate/high DA, GCs5/32/82 2.23 1.39 3.58
NSAIDs16/151/1072 0.77 0.60 0.98
  • Results for ordinal mixed effects logistic regression analysis in all patients (primary model). Shown are fixed effects, random effects for country are not shown. Missing values are imputed via multiple imputation, patient numbers may thus be rounded. The model was additionally adjusted for age employing four-knot restricted cubic splines. Significant associations highlighted in bold.

  • bDMARD, biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drug; BMI, body mass index; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; csDMARD, conventional synthetic DMARD; CVD, cardiovascular disease; DMARD, disease-modifying antirheumatic drug; IL, interleukin; JAK, Janus kinase; N, number; NSAID, non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug; TNF, tumour necrosis factor; tsDMARD, targeted synthetic DMARD.