Table 1

Demographic and clinical characteristics and outcomes of 36 patients with sarcoidosis and COVID-19

CharacteristicsAll (n=36)
n (%)
Admitted in ICU (n=13) n (%)Not admitted in ICU (n=23) n (%)
Age at sarcoidosis diagnosis (years), median (range)38.5 (21–74)39 (30–61)38 (21–74)
Age at COVID-19 diagnosis (years), median (range)54.5 (26–100)55 (36–100)51 (26–90)
Sex (female/male)10/2603/10/207/16
BMI, kg/m2, median (range)26.4 (12.6–38.4)25.0 (12.6–38.4)26.1 (19.5–35.2)
Active smoker4 (11)2 (15)2 (9)
Past smoker9 (25)4 (31)5 (22)
Overweight13 (36)3 (23)10 (43)
Obesity7 (19)3 (23)4 (17)
Chronic comorbidities
 COPD2 (6)1 (8)1 (4)
 Diabetes12 (33)8 (62)4 (17)
 With insulin5 (14)4 (31)1 (4)
 Hypertension14 (39)6 (46)8 (35)
 Malignant tumour2 (6)1 (8)1 (4)
 Chronic kidney disease5 (14)3 (23)2 (9)
 Dialysis1 (3)1 (8)0
 Cardiovascular disease3 (8)2 (15)1 (4)
 ACE inhibitor or ARB3 (8)03 (13)
 History of thrombosis1 (3)1 (8)0
 Organ transplantation2 (6)02 (9)
Sarcoidosis involvement
 Pulmonary35 (97)13 (100)22 (96)
 Intrathoracic lymph nodes32 (89)11 (85)21 (91)
 ILD26 (72)10 (77)16 (70)
 Lung fibrosis12 (33)5 (38)7 (30)
 Skin6 (17)2 (15)4 (17)
 Peripheral lymph nodes5 (14)2 (15)3 (13)
 Liver7 (19)5 (38)2 (9)
 Heart4 (11)2 (15)2 (9)
 CNS7 (19)3 (23)4 (17)
 PNS3 (8)2 (15)1 (4)
 Kidney3 (8)2 (15)1 (4)
 Löfgren syndrome1 (3)01 (4)
Treatments at the time of COVID-19
 Corticosteroids25 (69)11 (85)14 (61)
 Daily dose, median (range)7.8 (5–50)7.5 (5–50)8 (5–35)
 Hydroxychloroquine3 (8)03 (13)
 Methotrexate*8 (22)4 (31)4 (17)
 MMF*3 (8)1 (8)2 (9)
 Azathioprine*3 (8)1 (8)2 (9)
 TNF-alpha antagonist*6 (17)1 (8)5 (22)
Signs and symptoms at diagnosis
 Fever24 (67)12 (92)12 (52)
 Cough29 (81)11 (85)18 (78)
 Shortness of breath24 (67)11 (85)13 (57)
 Anosmia9 (25)09 (39)
 Dysgeusia7 (19)07 (30)
 Diarrhoea, nausea or vomiting10 (28)2 (15)8 (35)
 RT-PCR positive31/33 (94)12/13 (92)19/20 (95)
 Serology positive3/3 (100)0/0 (0)3/3 (100)
Chest CT findings: extension of GGO and/or consolidation
 Chest CT performed27 (75)11 (85)16 (70)
 None0 (0)00
 Minor5 (19)05 (22)
 Moderate9 (33)5 (45)4 (17)
 Severe11 (41)5 (45)6 (23)
 Missing data1 (4)1 (9)0 (0)
Treatments for COVID-19
 Antiviral4 (11)4 (31)0
 Hydroxychloroquine5 (14)3 (23)2 (9)
 Steroids7 (19)4 (31)3 (13)
Management
 Admission to hospital28 (78)13 (100)15 (65)
 Admission in ICU13 (36)13 (100)0
 Mechanical ventilation4 (11)4 (31)0
Outcomes
 Deaths5 (14)4 (31)1 (4)
 Thrombosis3 (8)2 (15)1 (4)
 Acute kidney injury3 (8)2 (15)1 (4)
 Bacterial infection5 (14)3 (23)2 (9)
  • *All patients with methotrexate, MMF, azathioprine and/or TNF-alpha antagonists also received corticosteroids.

  • ARB, angiotensin receptor blockade; BMI, body mass index; CNS, central nervous system; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; GGO, ground glass opacity; ICU, intensive care unit; ILD, interstitial lung disease; MMF, mycophenolate mofetil; PNS, peripheral nervous system; RT, reverse transcription; TNF, tumour necrosis factor.