Table 1

Clinical and demographic characteristics of the study participants

AA-CNTAA-JAKiAA-MALICI-irAEICI-CNT
Patients total1816161910
Females (%)13 (72.2)9 (56.3)7 (43.8)13 (68.4)3 (30.0)
Age (y)±SD57.4±12.158.0±8.670.6±12.560.8±11.263.4±13.5
CRP (mg/L)±SD5.6±6.17.7±11.25.6±5.913.6±22.88.5±10.0
 Malignancy characteristics
Mean disease duration (y)±SD12.5±8.36.0±4.92.0±1.0
Malignancy type: *
 Melanoma (%)2 (12.5)11 (57.9)8 (80.0)
 NSCLC (%)0 (0)4 (21.1)0 (0)
 Urogenital (%)8 (50.0)0 (0)0 (0)
 Haematological (%)3 (18.8)0 (0)0 (0)
 Others (%)3 (18.8)4 (21.1)2 (20.0)
Malignancy stage:
 · I/II (%)4 (25.0)0 (0)0 (0)
 III (%)0 (0)6 (31.6)4 (40.0)
 IV (%)1 (6.3)13 (68.4)6 (60.0)
 Other classifications (%)3 (18.8)0 (0)0 (0)
 n/a (%)8 (50.0)0 (0)0 (0)
Malignancy treatment:
 ICI ever (%)0 (0)19 (100.0)10 (100.0)
  Anti-PD-(L)1 only13 (68.4)8 (80.0)
  Combined anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-16 (31.6)2 (20.0)
 ICI currently (%)0 (0)12 (63.2)10 (100.0)
  Mean ICI duration (months)±SD20.8±16.310.7±4.3
 Other immunotherapy (%)3 (27.3)3 (15.8)1 (10.0)
 Chemotherapy ever (%)4 (25.0)6 (31.6)1 (10.0)
 Chemotherapy currently (%)1 (6.3)4 (21.1)0 (0)
 Radiotherapy ever (%)2 (12.5)3 (15.8)2 (20.0)
 Primary excision (%)8 (50.0)0 (0)0 (0)
 Other (%)1 (6.3)1 (5.3)0 (0)
Current remission status:
 CR (%)14 (87.5)6 (31.6)2 (20.0)
 PR (%)0 (0)3 (15.8)3 (30.0)
 SD (%)2 (12.5)9 (47.4)4 (40.0)
 PD (%)0 (0)1 (5.3)1 (10.0)
 Autoimmunity characteristics
Mean disease duration (y)±SD12.5±11.510.7±6.914.1±13.11.0±1.2
Serology
 Rheumatoid factor positive (%)12 (66.7)11 (68.8)2 (12.5)0 (0)
 ACPA positive (%)10 (55.6)10 (62.5)5 (31.3)0 (0)
Autoimmune arthritis type:
 RA (%)12 (66.7)13 (81.3)8 (50.0)1 (5.3)
 PsA (%)6 (33.3)3 (18.8)5 (31.3)1 (5.3)
 Other SpA (%)0 (0)0 (0)3 (18.8)0 (0)
 RA-like irAE (%)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)7 (36.8)
 SpA-like irAE (%)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)6 (31.6)
 Other irAE phenotype (%)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)4 (21.1)
Autoimmune arthritis treatment:
 GC (%)3 (16.7)5 (31.3)8 (50.0)9 (47.4)
  Mean GC dosage (mg/d)±SD5.0±0.05.8±2.44.4±2.19.4±5.9
 csDMARDs (%)11 (61.1)9 (56.3)9 (56.3)3 (15.8)
  Methotrexate (%)8 (44.4)6 (37.5)8 (50.0)2 (10.5)
  Leflunomide (%)5 (27.8)3 (18.8)1 (6.3)1 (5.3)
 bDMARDs (%)8 (44.4)6 (37.5)0 (0)
  TNFi (%)7 (38.9)4 (25.0)0 (0)
  Others (%)1 (5.6)2 (12.5)0 (0)
 tsDMARDs (%)16 (100.0)1 (6.3)0 (0)
  Tofacitinib (%)4 (25.0)0 (0)0 (0)
  Baricitinib (%)6 (37.5)1 (6.3)0 (0)
  Upadacitinib (%)5 (31.3)0 (0)0 (0)
  Filgotinib (%)1 (6.3)0 (0)0 (0)
Current remission status:
 DAS28 available (%)16 (88.9)16 (100.0)14 (87.5)10 (52.6)
  Remission: DAS28<2.6 (%)8 (44.4)8 (50.0)9 (56.3)6 (31.6)
  Low disease activity: DAS28 2.6–3.19 (%)2 (11.1)3 (18.8)1 (6.3)1 (5.3)
  High disease activity: DAS28≥3.2 (%)6 (33.3)5 (31.3)4 (50.0)3 (15.8)
  • *Only the main malignant diagnosis that led to ICI or other antineoplastic therapy is listed here. Patients with more than one malignant diagnosis are identified in online online supplemental table 1.

  • AA-JAKi, autoimmune arthritis Janus-kinase inhibitor; AA-MAL, autoimmune arthritis malignancy; ACPA, anti-citrulinated protein antibodies; CR, complete remission; CRP, C-reactive protein; csDMARDS, conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs; DMARDs, disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs; GC, glucocorticoids; ICI-irAE, immune checkpoint inhibitor-immune-related adverse event; NSCLC, non-small-cell lung cancer; PD, progressing disease; PR, partial remission; PsA, psoriatic arthritis; RA, rheumatoid arthritis; SD, stable disease; SpA, spondylarthritis; TNFi, tumour necrosis factor inhibitors.