Table 2

Univariable and multivariable models of the impact of disease activity states on overall damage accrual

Univariable modelMultivariable model
IRR (95% CI)IRR (95% CI)
Disease activity state
 Remission off-treatment 0.74 (0.69 to 0.80) 0.75 (0.70 to 0.81)
 Remission on-treatment 0.69 (0.63 to 0.76) 0.68 (0.62 to 0.75)
 LDA-TC 0.76 (0.66 to 0.89) 0.79 (0.68 to 0.92)
 mLLDAS 0.75 (0.64 to 0.89) 0.76 (0.65 to 0.89)
Male sex 1.62 (1.35 to 1.95) 1.29 (1.09 to 1.52)
Age at diagnosis 1.02 (1.02 to 1.02) 1.03 (1.02 to 1.03)
Ethnicity
 White, USARef.Ref.
 White, other1.08 (0.87 to 1.34)1.05 (0.87 to 1.27)
 Black 1.68 (1.36 to 2.08) 1.50 (1.23 to 1.83)
 Asian0.81 (0.64 to 1.04)0.83 (0.66 to 1.05)
 Hispanic1.33 (1.09 to 1.62)1.27 (1.04 to 1.55)
 Other1.06 (0.69 to 1.61)1.10 (0.72 to 1.68)
Educational level (years) 0.95 (0.92 to 0.98)0.98 (0.95 to 1.01)
Disease duration at baseline0.86 (0.71 to 1.04)0.97 (0.80 to 1.16)
Antimalarial use 0.65 (0.56 to 0.74) 0.76 (0.65 to 0.87)
Highest prednisone dose before baseline 1.01 (1.01 to 1.01) 1.00 (1.00 to 1.01)
SDI before 1.12 (1.08 to 1.16)1.03 (0.99 to 1.07)
  • Bold indicates values which are statistically significant.

  • IRR, incidence rate ratio; LDA-TC, low disease activity Toronto cohort; mLLDAS, modified lupus low disease activity state; Ref., reference; SDI, Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index.