Table 1

Comparison of severe COVID-19 pneumonia and anti-MDA-5 antibody-positive DM-RP-ILD

Severe COVID-19 pneumoniaAnti-MDA5 antibody-positive DM-RP-ILD
Clinical behaviourAcute.Rapidly progressive.
TriggerSARS-CoV-2.Possible virus infection.
Ethnic and/or geographical differencesAll ethnicities are susceptible and vulnerable.More severe in Asian populations.
Typical rashNo.Gottron’s rash, skin ulceration, palmar papule.
Muscle involvementMyalgia and myositis.Amyopathy or hypomyopathy.
Predictive factorsOlder age, male sex, comorbidities, high levels of proinflammatory cytokine.High titre of anti-MAD5 antibody, hyperferritinaemia, high levels of proinflammatory cytokine.
Cytokine/chemokine profileIL-1, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, IL-18, IP-10, MCP-1, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, TNF-α.IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-18, IP-10, IFN-α, IFN-γ, TNF-α.
HRCT patternGGO, consolidation, AIP.NSIP, OP.
 GlucocorticoidPossible benefit.Benefit.
 ImmunosuppressantNo data.Benefit.
 Anticytokine therapyPossible benefit.Benefit.
 Antifibrotic agentsNo data.Probable benefit.
 PlasmapheresisPossible benefitProbable benefit.
  • AIP, acute interstitial pneumonia; DM-RP-ILD, dermatomyositis-associated rapidly progressive interstitial lung disease; GGO, ground glass opacity; GM-CSF, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor; HRCT, high-resolution CT; IFN, interferon; IL, interleukin; IP-10, interferon-inducible protein-10; MCP-1, monocyte chemotactic protein-1; MDA-5, melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5; NSIP, non-specific interstitial pneumonia; OP, organising pneumonia; SARS-CoV-2, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; ;TNF-α, tumour necrosis factor alpha.