Table 1

Data collected in each patient (by questionnaire and measurements)

Demographics and general informationAge, sex, BMI, smoking status, alcohol consumption, type and frequency of physical exercise, exposure to direct sunlight, daily calcium intake, use of care services and socioeconomic status
Description of GC therapyCurrent GC dose, mean daily GC dose, cumulative (lifetime) GC dose* and duration of GC therapy
Description of underlying diseaseOnset of disease, current disease activity (DAS28–ESR, DAS28–CRP, CDAI, SDAI, SLEDAI, BASDAI, BASMI, BVAS, concomitant diseases and organ manifestation of iRMD (such as diabetes, hypertension, stroke, cancer, pericarditis in SLE, lung fibrosis in systemic sclerosis, etc), selected patient-reported outcomes (pain according to numerical rating scale, health assessment questionnaire, bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index), and past and current antirheumatic drugs
General bone-relevant parametersVitamin D and calcium supplementation, treatment with antiosteoporotic drugs, treatment with drugs having a known or potential impact on bone (eg, proton pump inhibitors)
Clinical bone-relevant parametersFamily history of osteoporosis/osteoporotic fractures, frailty assessment (timed-up-and-go test, chair-rising test and tandem stand), back pain, prior low-trauma vertebral and non-vertebral fractures,† date of fracture, management of fractures, fracture sequalae, weight loss, loss of height, past falls, risk assessment of falls, back pain, menarche/menopause/pregnancies/lactation/past use of hormone-based contraceptives
Technical bone-relevant parameters Routine laboratory parameters such as calcium, phosphate, vitamin D levels (1, 25 and 25), iPTH, bone alkaline phosphatase, crosslinks and other, BMD/T-score measured by DXA and TBS
  • Parameters in italic were retrieved through measurements. All other parameters were assessed through a questionnaire. When patients were not able to provide full or detailed information, patient charts were used to complement the investigated parameters.

  • *Cumulative GC dose was calculated meticulously from patients’ self-reported dose and duration of GC therapy with the help of supplemental data retrieved from patient charts.

  • †History of fractures was self-reported and verified from patient charts, if available. Fractures were adjudicated under osteoporotic fractures when having occurred due to inadequate trauma or fall from standing height.

  • BASDAI, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index; BASMI, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index; BMD, bone mineral density; BMI, body mass index; BVAS, Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score; CDAI, Clinical Disease Activity Index; CRP, C reactive protein; DAS28, Disease Activity Score 28; DXA, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; ESR, erythrocyte sedimentation rate; GC, glucocorticoid; HAQ, Health Assessment Questionnaire; iPTH, intact parathyroid hormone; iRMD, inflammatory rheumatic and musculoskeletal disease; SDAI, Simplified Disease Activity Index; SLEDAI, Systemic Lupus Erythematodes Disease Activity Index; TBS, trabecular bone score.