Table 1.

Cumulative incidence and hazard ratio (HR) of incident gout according to baseline serum urate levels and CKD status

CKD Stage ≥ 3Hyperuricemia (Dichotomous)
Serum urate, mg/dL<55.0 to < 6.06.0 to < 7.07.0 to < 8.08.0 to < 9.09.0 to < 10.0≥10<7.0≥7.0
N cases61528951501048749436
10-Year Cumulative Incidence0.6%1.1%1.7%7.6%19.1%28.0%42.0%1.2%16.6%
Incidence Rate Ratio1.0 (Ref)1.72.712.333.856.1107.71.0 (Ref)15.2
No CKD
Serum urate, mg/dL<55.0 to < 6.06.0 to < 7.07.0 to < 8.08.0 to < 9.09.0 to < 10.0≥10<7.0≥7.0
N cases393446105617691251363841,8953,467
10-Year Cumulative Incidence,0.2%0.4%1.4%6.0%15.6%23.5%27.5%0.5%8.8%
Incidence Rate Ratio1.0 (Ref)2.18.034.696.9155.9198.81.0 (Ref)20.2
Joint Effect of Serum Urate and CKD
Serum urate, mg/dL<55.0 to < 6.06.0 to < 7.07.0 to < 8.08.0 to < 9.09.0 to < 10.0≥10<7.0≥7.0
Age-, Sex-, and Race- Adjusted HR
No CKD1.0 (Ref)1.97.029.883.0133.3170.31.0 (Ref)15.7
CKD3.25.17.834.193.3155.9302.32.530.5
Fully adjusted HR*
No CKD1.0 (Ref)1.86.425.869.4108.7132.91.0 (Ref)12.5
CKD3.14.76.828.975.2121.1241.82.322.4
  • *Adjusted for age, sex, race, body mass index, hypertension, diuretic use, smoking, and consumption of alcohol, coffee, meat, fish, poultry, and milk.