Table 2

Comparison of vaccination responders and non-responders among patients with AIRD taking MTX

Responders*
(n=55)
Non-responders
(n=9)
P value†
Age, mean (SD)59.5 (12.9)70.3 (6.67) 0.001
Female, n (%)42 (76.4)3 (33.3) 0.010
BMI, mean (SD)25.4 (4.09)26.6 (3.70)0.389
Medication0.616
 MTX-mono, n (%)23 (41.8)3 (33.3)
 MTX+prednisolone, n (%)8 (14.5)4 (44.4)
 MTX+anti-TNF-α, n (%)‡10 (18.2)1 (11.1)
 MTX+anti-TNF-α+prednisolone, n (%)‡6 (10.9)1 (11.1)
 MTX+HCQ, n (%)2 (3.6)0
 MTX+leflunomide, n (%)§3 (5.5)0
 MTX+anti-IL-17, n (%)¶2 (3.6)0
 MTX+anti-IL-12/IL-23, n (%)**1 (1.8)0
 MTX dose (mg/week), mean (SD)13.0 (4.29)14.2 (4.33)0.469
 MTX oral application, n (%)25 (45.5)1 (11.1)0.057
 Additional prednisolone, n (%)15 (27.3)5 (55.6)0.103
 Prednisolone dose (mg/day), mean (SD)2.5 (1.4)3.8 (1.6)0.174
Vaccination0.609
 BNT162b2, n (%)39 (70.9)8 (88.9)
 mRNA-1273, n (%)7 (12.7)1 (11.1)
 AZD1222, n (%)7 (12.7)0
 AZD1222+BNT162b2, n (%)2 (3.6)0
 Vaccine interval in days, mean (SD)42 (15)31 (9) 0.011
 Days from second vaccination, mean (SD)30 (22)40 (22)0.259
MTX-hold, n (%)30 (54.5)1 (11.1) 0.017
 For both vaccinations, n23 (41.8)1 (11.1)
 For only the first vaccination, n2 (3.6)0
 For only the second vaccination, n5 (9.0)0
  • *Defined by neutralising capacity against SARS-CoV-2 ≥30%.

  • †P values were calculated using the exact unconditional z-pooled test for binary variables (female, MTX oral application, additional prednisolone, MTX-hold), χ² test for categorical variables (medication, vaccination) and unpaired t-test with Welch’s correction for continuous variables.

  • ‡Adalimumab, certolizumab, etanercept, golimumab, infliximab.

  • §Additional low-dose prednisolone for n=1.

  • ¶Secukinumab.

  • **Ustekinumab.

  • AIRD, autoimmune rheumatic diseases; BMI, body mass index; HCQ, hydroxychloroquine; IL, interleukin; MTX, methotrexate; TNF, tumour necrosis factor.