Table 1

Symptoms and manifestations which led to PGA≥0.5* despite cSLEDAI-2K=0 in a multicentre cohort of 646 patients with lupus

Patients with PGA≥0.5 and cSLEDAI-2K=0195/646 (30.2%)
1. Patients with subjective findings without objectifiable clinical manifestations likely due to SLE (condition 1) 157/195 (80.5%)
Musculoskeletal domain98
 Low back pain10
 Morning stiffness8
Finger stings1
Shortness of breath1
Burning mouth syndrome1
Ocular pain1
Multiple symptoms (arthromyalgias, asthenia, anxiety, panic attack, hallucinations, demoralisation, sleepiness, confusion, headache, memory deficit, dizziness, insomnia, vision loss, low-grade fever, chronic cough, paraesthesia, finger stings, chronic pharyngodynia, fast heartbeat, chronic itch, influenza syndrome, hand/foot ulcers, constipation, vaginosis and/or effluvium capillorum)25
2. Patients with objectifiable clinical manifestations likely due to SLE (condition 2) 38/195 (19.5%)
Haematological involvement (i.e., lymphopenia, haemolytic anaemia)†10
Recurrent infections leading to withdrawal/reduction of immunosuppressive therapy6
Chilblain lupus erythematosus2
Lower limbs sensory neuropathy1
Hand pitting scars1
Impaired diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide1
Venous thrombosis in secondary antiphospholipid syndrome1
Hepatic-pancreatic enzyme increase1
  • *PGA was scored prior to reviewing complement and anti-DNA antibody test.

  • †not included in SLEDAI-2K.

  • ‡Proteinuria ≤0.5 gr/day.

  • cSLEDAI-2K, clinical SLE disease activity index-2000; PGA, physician’s global assessment; SLE, systemic lupus erythematosus.