Table 3

Variables associated with a gout flare in the 3-month period*

Variables for gout flareUnivariate analysisMultivariate analysis
Model 1Model 2
OR (95% CI)P valueOR (95% CI)P valueOR (95% CI)P value
Demographics
 Sex (ref: female)0.82 (0.32 to 2.10)0.674.04 (0.68 to 24.04)0.134.33 (0.73 to 25.82)0.11
 Age (per year)1.00 (0.99 to 1.02)0.491.01 (0.99 to 1.03)0.161.01 (0.99 to 1.03)0.18
 Body mass index (per kg/m²)1.03 (0.99 to 1.08)0.161.02 (0.97 to 1.08)0.441.02 (0.97 to 1.08)0.45
 Comorbidity† (ref: no)0.92 (0.67 to 1.29)0.64
 Tophi (ref: no)1.01 (0.59 to 1.70)0.98
 Disease duration (per year)0.96 (0.92 to 0.99)0.0070.96 (0.92 to 1.01)0.090.96 (0.92 to 1.01)0.12
 Flare within 3 months prior to first vaccine (ref: no)0.17 (0.06 to 0.54)0.0031.27 (0.21 to 7.68)0.791.27 (0.21 to 7.71)0.79
 Last serum urate done before first vaccine (per mg/dL)1.22 (1.11 to 1.33)<0.0011.14 (1.02 to 1.27)0.0211.14 (1.02 to 1.27)0.025
Vaccination
 COVID-19 vaccination (ref: no)4.57 (2.66 to 7.84)<0.0016.02 (3.00 to 12.08)<0.001
 Sinovac Life vaccine (ref: no)2.90 (1.28 to 6.56)0.0113.13 (1.12 to 8.72)0.029
 Sinopharm BIBP vaccine (ref: no)0.55 (0.28 to 1.10)0.090.48 (0.2 to 1.14)0.09
 Other vaccines (ref: no)0.70 (0.34 to 1.41)0.320.49 (0.20 to 1.19)0.12
Treatment
 Colchicine prophylaxis (ref: no)0.38 (0.24 to 0.61)<0.0010.53 (0.31 to 0.92)0.0250.53 (0.30 to 0.92)0.024
 Febuxostat use at the time of first vaccine (ref: no or missing)0.89 (0.47 to 1.68)0.71
 Benzbromarone use at the time of first vaccine (ref: no or missing)0.66 (0.36 to 1.21)0.18
  • Model 1: fully adjusted by COVID-19 vaccination, sex, age, body-mass index, disease duration, flare within 3 months prior to the first dose vaccine, last serum urate done before the first dose vaccine, colchicine prophylaxis and urate-lowering drugs use at the time of the first dose vaccine.

  • Model 2: fully adjusted by vaccine types (Sinovac Life, Sinopharm BIBP and others including recombinant COVID-19 vaccine (CHO cell) or recombinant COVID-19 Vaccine (adenovirus type 5 vector)), sex, age, body mass index, disease duration, flare within 3 months prior to the first dose vaccine, last serum urate done before the first dose vaccine, colchicine prophylaxis and urate-lowering drugs use at the time of the first dose vaccine.

  • Bold values indicate P<0.05.

  • *Gout flare within 3 months after any vaccine in COVID-19 vaccination participants or the matched time period in the non-vaccination participants.

  • †Comorbidities include hypertension, renal disease, hyperlipidaemia, tumour, fracture, cardiovascular, digestive, respiratory or mental diseases.