Table 1

Univariate and multivariate models assessing the association between the occurrence of hospitalised COVID-19 and each variable

VariablesRituximab
(n=392)
Other bDMARDs
(n=724)
Univariate
OR of hospitalised COVID-19
(95% CrI)
Multivariate
OR of hospitalised COVID-19
(95% CrI)
Model #1
Multivariate
OR of hospitalised COVID-19
(95% CrI)
Model #2
bDMARDs (RTX vs other bDMARDs)8.5 (2.4 to 38.6)
Pr (OR >1)≈1.0
7.7 (1.7 to 44.7)4.4 (1.8 to 11.1)
Median age (years)64 (56–71)57.3 (47.0–67.0)1.0 (1.0 to 1.1)
Pr (OR >1)≈1.0
1.0 (1.0 to 1.0)1.0 (1.0 to 1.0)
Female285 (72.7)426 (58.8)0.6 (0.2 to 2.0)
Pr (OR >1)=0.2
0.5 (0.1 to 2.1)0.5 (0.2 to 1.0)
IA diagnosis
 RA366 (95.6)305 (42.4)RA versus SPA
0.3 (0.0 to 1.4)
Pr (OR >1)=0.06
RA versus SPA
1.0 (0.1 to 7.4)
RA versus SPA
0.6 (0.1 to 3.7)
 Spondyloarthritis (including psoriatic arthritis)0364 (50.6)RA versus other
2.2 (0.4 to 8.7)
RA versus other
2.3 (0.3 to 13.2)
RA versus other
2.1 (0.3 to 10.7)
 Other*17 (4.4)51 (7.1)Pr (OR >1)=0.8
Comorbidities†
 Cardiovascular disease60 (15.4)167 (23.1)0.5 (0.1 to 2.1)
Pr (OR >1)=0.2
3.6 (0.9 to 16.6)2.7 (1.3 to 5.8)
 Cerebrovascular disease10 (2.6)29 (4.0)0.5 (0.0 to 4.2)
Pr (OR >1)=0.3
0.5 (0.0 to 4.0)0.5 (0.0 to 4.3)
 Chronic lung disease92 (23.5)84 (11.6)1.9 (0.5 to 6.4)1.0 (0.2 to 3.9)1.8 (0.9 to 3.8)
 Diabetes48 (12.3)68 (9,4)2.8 (0.6 to 9.6)
Pr (OR >1)=0.8
1.7 (0.4 to 7.4)2.1 (0.5 to 5.4)
 Median BMI (kg/m²) (IQR)25.8 (23.2–29.4)27.3 (23.4–31.2)Normal BMI vs BMI >25
0.2 (0.0 to 1.4)
Pr (OR >1)=0.1
Normal BMI vs BMI >25
0.1 (0.0 to 1.0)
Normal BMI vs BMI >25
0.2 (0.0 to 1.1)
 BMI >30 kg/m²67 (24.4)120 (32.3)Normal BMI vs BMI >30
0.5 (0.1 to 2.6)
Pr (OR >1)=0.2
Normal BMI vs BMI >30
0.4 (0.1 to 2.9)
Normal BMI vs BMI >30
0.4 (0.1 to 2.2)
Treatments
 Conventional synthetic DMARDs242 (61.7)374 (51.7)0.6 (0.2 to 1.9)
Pr (OR >1)=0.2
0.6 (0.2 to 2.1)0.5 (0.2 to 1.0)
 Other immunosuppressive agents7 (1.8)5 (0.7%)3.0 (1.4 to 6.5)
Pr (OR >1) ≈ 1.0
4.0 (0.5 to 30.4)2.1 (1.0 to 4.4)
 Oral glucocorticoids
 Median dose (mg/day) — (IQR)
1 (0–5)0 (0–0)No steroids vs 0–10 mg/day
3.0 (0.7 to 11.4)
Pr (OR >1)=0.9
No steroids vs >10 mg/day
2.9 (0.3 to 20.5)
Pr (OR >1)=0.8
No steroids vs 0–10 mg/day
1.7 (0.4 to 7.2)
No steroids vs >10 mg/day
1.3 (0.1 to 10.9)
No steroids vs 0–10 mg/day
1.7 (0.4 to 7.5)
No steroids vs >10 mg/day
1.5 (0.1 to 11.1)
 No steroids190 (48.5)486 (37.1)
0–10 mg/day114 (29.1)90 (12.4)
 >10 mg/day13 (3.3)10 (1.4)
  • Model #1: weakly informative prior (specifying that 0.05<ORx<20 a priori).

  • Model #2: taking into account prior according to a recent publication by Strangfeld et al.3

  • Bold indicates statistically significant results.

  • *Other IA includes vasculitides n=16, juvenile idiopathic arthritis n=12, connective tissue diseases n=11, polymyalgia rheumatica n=10 and others n=19: uveitis, inflammatory bowel disease, stiff-person syndrome, sarcoidosis, inflammatory myositis, calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease, familial Mediterranean fever, Blau syndrome and McCune-Albright syndrome.

  • †Comorbidities: ‘cardiovascular disease’ includes abnormal heart rhythms or arrhythmias, aorta disease, coronary artery disease (narrowing of the arteries), heart attack, heart failure, cardiomyopathy, heart valve disease, hypertension, pericardial disease, peripheral vascular disease; ‘cerebrovascular disease’ includes history of stroke and transient ischaemic attack; ‘chronic lung disease’ includes asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, interstitial pneumopathy and pulmonary fibrosis, asbestosis, pneumonitis, obstructive sleep apnea–hypopnea syndrome and history of pulmonary embolism; diabetes includes type I and II diabetes.

  • bDMARD, biologic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug; BMI, Body Mass Index; IA, inflammatory arthritides; RA, rheumatoid arthritis; RTX, rituximab; SPA, spondyloarthr.