Table 1

Patient characteristics by serological status in those with no evidence of previous natural infection

CharacteristicsnFirst dose (n=119)nSecond dose (n=91)
Non-seroconversionSeroconversionP valueNon-seroconversionSeroconversionP value
n=85 (71.4%)n=34 (28.6%)n=37 (40.7%)n=54 (59.3%)
GenderMale6244 (71.0)18 (29.0)4920 (40.8)29 (59.2)
Female5741 (71.9)16 (28.1)4217 (40.5)25 (59.5)
AgeYears (IQR)52.0 (39.9–63.9)56.2 (36.1–60.7)60.5 (43.8–69.5)51.8 (37.3–60.2)0.05
EthnicityWhite6244 (71.0)18 (29.0)5022 (44.0)28 (56.0)
Black107 (70.0)3 (30.0)71 (14.8)6 (85.2)
South Asian3424 (70.6))10 (19.6)2712 (44.4)15 (55.6)
Mixed-race76 (85.7)1 (14.3)31 (33.3)2 (66.7)
Other64 (66.7)2 (33.3)41 (25.0)3 (75.0)
DiagnosisAAV and anti-GBM disease4535 (77.8)10 (22.2)3417 (50.0)17 (50.0)
Podocytopathy*2818 (64.3)10 (35.7)2512 (48.0)13 (52.0)
Membranous GN2315 (65.2)8 (34.8)216 (28.6)15 (71.4)
SLE1914 (73.7)5 (26.3)81 (12.5)7 (87.5)
Other†43 (75.0)1 (25.0)31 (33.3)2 (66.7)
ComorbiditiesDiabetes1917 (89.5)2 (10.5)169 (56.3)7 (43.7)
Asthma/COPD2517 (68.0)8 (32.0)144 (28.6)10 (71.4)
Previous malignancy64 (66.7)2 (33.3)43 (75.0)1 (25.0)
ImmunotherapyPrevious rituximab9977 (77.8)22 (22.2)0.0027535 (46.7)40 (53.3)0.01
 Last 6 months5649 (87.5)7 (12.5)0.0164426 (59.1)18 (40.9)0.0007
Tacrolimus2317 (73.9)6 (26.0)217 (33.3)14 (67.7)
Azathioprine136 (46.1)7 (53.9)83 (37.5)5 (62.5)
MMF75 (71.4)2 (29.6)136 (46.2)7 (53.8)
Methotrexate32 (66.7)1 (33.3)202 (100)
Prednisolone5240 (76.9)12 (23.1)3614 (38.9)22 (61.1)
 ≥10 mg1913 (68.4)6 (31.6)115 (45.5)6 54.5)
Belimumab43 (75.0)1 (25.0)101 (100)
No current IS41 (25.0)3 (75.0)41 (25.0)3 (75.0)
Previous CYP5847 (81.0)11 (19.0)0.034118 (43.9)23 66.1)
VaccineAZ/ChAdOx13429 (85.3)5 (14.7)0.042216 (72.3)6 (37.7)0.0009
Pfizer/ BNT162b28556 (65.9)29 (34.1)6921 (30.4)48 (69.6)
Clinical parameterB-cell depletion6454 (63.5)10 (29.4)0.0014928 (57.1)21 (42.9)0.0006
Hypogammaglobulinaemia2519 (76.0)6 (34.0)2212 (54.5)10 (45.5)
  • Comparison between groups by χ2 test.

  • *Podocytopathy included minimal change disease and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

  • †Other diagnoses included C3 glomerulopathy and IgG4-related disease.

  • AAV, ANCA-associated vasculitis; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CYP, cyclophosphamide; GBM, glomerular basement membrane; IS, immunosuppressed; MMF, mycophenolate mofetil; SLE, systemic lupus erythematosus.