Table 1

Pathogenic pathways reported in APS, CAPS and COVID-19

Pathogenic pathsAPSCAPSCOVID-19
Thrombotic microangiopathy+/−++++
EC perturbation+++++
Complement activation++++
NETosis+/−?++
Proinflammatory cytokines+/−++++
Impaired fibrinolysis29 30 +?++
aPL+++++/−
  • aPL, antiphospholipid antibody; APS, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome; CAPS, catastrophic APS; EC, endothelial cell.