Table 2

Glossary of terms relevant for the current Points to Consider

Work participationICFActive engagement in paid or unpaid work.
Contextual factorICFIn the bio-psycho-social framework of health
contextual factors refer to variables that are part of the environment of the individual (eg, social attitudes, architectural characteristics, legal and social structures, as well as climate, etc) or characterise the individual him/herself (eg, gender, age, coping, lifestyle, social background, education, profession, past and current experiences). They influence occurrence and course of disease and determine how illness and disability is experienced by the individual.
OMERACTIn the framework of outcome assessment, contextual factors are variables that are not the outcome of the study, but need to be recognised to understand the study results. They also include confounders and effect modifiers.
They can be measurement affecting, outcome influencing or effect modifying.
EmploymentILO/WHOAn agreement to produce goods or services for a specific period in time for compensation by a salary, a wage or in kind. Different types of employment exist, among which is self-employment.
Part-time employmentILO/WHOWhen the hours of work are less than the ‘normal’ hours of work of a comparable full-time employment.
Sick leaveWIKITime off from work that workers can use to stay home to address their health and safety needs without losing pay.
Paid sick leaveILO/WHOA statutory requirement in many nations or organisations that comprise (universal) income substitutions for persons that have temporary time off from the employment contract due to illness or disability.
Against this background sick leave consists of two components: leave from work due to sickness and cash benefits that replace the wage during the time of sick leave.
PresenteeismVariousRefers to:
  1. The behaviour of attending (paid) work while being ill.

  2. The level of influence on the work process (productivity, efficiency, performance) experienced by the worker (ability, difficulty).

Work productivityThe amount of goods and services produced in a specific time frame/period in time.
UnemploymentILO/WHONot being employed but looking for an employment.
Work disabilityILOWhen an individual is unable to perform work-related tasks due to physical or mental impairments or disability.
In many constituencies definitions of disability are identical with an administrative act of recognising a disability.
This recognition as disabled becomes a prerequisite for the claiming of support on the basis of a physical or mental limitation or for litigation under an antidiscrimination law.
Such support can comprise provisions for rehabilitation, special education, retraining, privileges in the securing and preserving of a place of employment, guarantee of subsistence through income, compensation payments and assistance with mobility, etc.
Virtually every existing definition of disability thus mirrors
a legal system and draws its meaning from this system.
It is also a highly heterogeneous concept, making the search for a homogeneous definition a virtually impossible task.
Decent workILODecent work involves opportunities for work that are productive and deliver a fair income, security in the workplace and social protection for families, better prospects for personal development and social integration, freedom for workers to express concerns, organise and participate in the decisions that affect their lives and equality of opportunity for all women and men.
Unpaid workWHOUnpaid work activities include own-use production of services and volunteer work in households or organisations producing services for others.
  • ICF, International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health; ILO, International Labour Organisation; OMERACT, Outcome Measures in Rheumatology.