Table 3

Proposal for classification of contextual factors relevant for studies with work participation as an outcome domain. Contextual factors can be facilitators or barriers

Personal contextual factorsEnvironmental contextual factors
Health*Nature of work
 Pain Physical/mental demands
 Fatigue Job autonomy
 Physical function
DemographicsWorkplace support/barriers
 Age and gender Assistance by coworkers
 Education Attitude of employer
Economic needWorkplace organisation
 Income needs Team dynamics at work
 Quality of benefits Compensation of absence (eg, replacement practices)
Personal appraisal of workWorkplace accommodation
 Job satisfaction Adaptive devices
 Career perspectives Modified hours/duties
Skills and abilitiesEconomic climate/labour regulations
 Work-efficacy Income compensation
 Coping Employment opportunities
Work-life balanceWorkplace accommodation
 Competing social roles Adaptive devices
 Quality of leisure Modified hours/duties
Non-workplace support/barriers
 Support from family
 Task assistance at home
  • *In the setting of clinical studies, health factors are relevant to interpret the study results and (contrary to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) definition) considered to represent personal contextual factors. In the ICF classification, contextual factors are by definition external to health factors. In the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology methodological definition, health factors can be covariates (effect modifiers, confounders).