Table 2

Covariate-adjusted analysis for time to first onset and incidence rate of gout flare in period 2

ULT (−)ULT (+)
sUA, mg/mLsUA, mg/mL
≥8.0≤5.0>5.0, ≤6.0>6.0, ≤7.0>7.0
Asymptomatic hyperuricaemia
n=7049n=88n=249n=358n=526
Time to first gout flare in period 2
Median time (95% CI)
HR (95% CI) versus ULT (−)*0.64
(0.32 to 1.29)
0.45
(0.27 to 0.76)
0.97
(0.71 to 1.32)
1.29
(1.04 to 1.61)
P value versus ULT (−)*0.2160.0020.8390.022
Incidence rate of gout flare in period 2
Incidence rate (95% CI)†, flares/person-year0.035
(0.024 to 0.051)
0.023
(0.010 to 0.053)
0.014
(0.008 to 0.027)
0.032
(0.019 to 0.053)
0.043
(0.027 to 0.068)
RR (95% CI) versus ULT (−)†0.65
(0.31 to 1.39)
0.40
(0.24 to 0.68)
0.91
(0.64 to 1.31)
1.23
(0.93 to 1.63)
P value versus ULT (−)†0.2690.0010.6240.141
Gout
n=107n=33n=68n=102n=201
Time to first gout flare in period 2
Median time (95% CI)158.3
(120.6 to –)
127.6
(14.9 to –)
– (164.6 to –)– (176.3 to –)125.6
(87.3 to 157.1)
HR (95% CI) versus ULT (−)*1.22
(0.71 to 2.10)
0.65
(0.40 to 1.05)
0.76
(0.51 to 1.14)
1.23
(0.89 to 1.70)
P value versus ULT (−)*0.4650.0780.1790.207
Incidence rate of gout flare in period 2
Incidence rate (95% CI)†, flares/person-year0.298
(0.096 to 0.924)
0.263
(0.077 to 0.894)
0.162
(0.051 to 0.516)
0.273
(0.091 to 0.823)
0.286
(0.094 to 0.869)
RR (95% CI) versus ULT (−)†0.88
(0.48 to 1.63)
0.54
(0.33 to 0.91)
0.92
(0.59 to 1.42)
0.96
(0.66 to 1.39)
P value versus ULT (−)†0.6900.0200.6940.822
  • *Multivariable analysis using Cox proportional-hazards model. Sex, number of comorbidities of interest in period 1, and age, eGFR, and sUA control at the follow-up date were included in the model.

  • †Multivariable analysis using negative binomial regression model. Sex, number of comorbidities of interest in period 1, and age, eGFR, and sUA control at the follow-up date were included in the model.

  • RR, relative incidence rate; sUA, serum uric acid levels; ULT, urate-lowering therapy.