Table 2

Multivariable logistic regression analysis of factors associated with COVID-19-related death in patients with rheumatic diseases (all patients)

N deaths/patients (%)AllPatients with inflammatory joint diseases (IJDs)Only patients with rheumatoid arthritisPatients with connective tissue diseases (CTDs) or vasculitis
384/3705 (10.4%)211/2348 (9.0%)166/1371 (12.1%)147/1157 (12.7%)
N deaths/patientsOR95% CIN deaths/patientsOR95% CIN deaths/patientsOR95% CIN deaths/patientsOR95% CI
Age, years
 Age≤65118/25651Reference55/16571Reference40/8401Reference56/7791Reference
 65 years<Age≤75109/64432.13 to 4.2271/4263.632.55 to 5.1555/3143.101.68 to 5.7233/1872.291.34 to 3.93
 Age>75157/4966.184.47 to 8.5385/2658.215.54 to 12.1871/2177.304.42 to 12.0658/1914.082.27 to 7.36
Male sex (vs female)161/11881.461.11 to 1.9182/7881.310.95 to 1.855/3451.170.78 to 1.7663/2961.660.96 to 2.86
Ever smoked (vs never)140/9221.210.94 to 1.5784/6071.260.93 to 1.7271/3851.451.02 to 2.0442/2481.110.67 to 1.86
Comorbidities
 Hypertension alone or CVD alone155/11501.190.89 to 1.5979/6901.040.74 to 1.4666/4541.110.74 to 1.6769/4061.561.06 to 2.29
 Hypertension and CVD89/3011.891.31 to 2.7353/1682.291.25 to 4.2338/1182.031.03 to 3.9728/1061.570.78 to 3.16
 Chronic lung disease136/7211.681.26 to 2.2576/4061.521.04 to 2.2163/2931.440.99 to 2.0954/2852.051.47 to 2.85
 Chronic kidney disease76/2591.670.99 to 2.827/1111.090.54 to 2.2121/831.010.46 to 2.2441/1242.301.37 to 3.88
 Diabetes mellitus96/5081.380.88 to 2.1755/3131.310.95 to 1.7939/2131.080.72 to 1.6132/1541.390.64 to 3
Rheumatic disease
 Rheumatoid arthritis160/13261Reference166/13731Referencen.a.n.a.
 Systemic lupus erythematosus36/3911.20.70 to 2.04n.a.n.a.32/3781Reference
 Vasculitis67/3250.80.60 to 1.08n.a.n.a.64/3180.810.49 to 1.33
 Other connective tissue diseases53/4730.750.58 to 0.97n.a.n.a.51/4610.780.39 to 1.54
 Psoriasis arthritis19/4290.750.53 to 1.0719/4370.820.55 to 1.22n.a.n.a.
 Spondyloarthritis15/4230.720.34 to 1.5415/4240.820.4 to 1.69n.a.n.a.
 Other inflammatory arthritis or non-systemic JIA10/1090.790.46 to 1.3411/1140.760.43 to 1.36n.a.n.a.
 Other rheumatic diseases (not IJDs/CTDs/vasculitis)24/2290.510.35 to 0.73n.a.n.a.n.a.
High/moderate/severe disease activity (DA) vs remission/low DA109/7221.871.27 to 2.7754/4531.61.13 to 2.2644/2741.601.03 to 2.4751/2302.451.49 to 4.02
Medication
 Methotrexate47/5951Reference41/4871Reference34/3541Reference6/941Reference
 No DMARD therapy124/7392.111.48 to 3.0138/2392.081.38 to 3.1425/1102.121.34 to 3.3767/3533.181.61 to 6.27
 Leflunomide12/901.560.9 to 2.710/831.370.69 to 2.739/681.430.71 to 2.86n.a.
 Antimalarials27/4260.990.66 to 1.4817/1671.140.65 to 217/1411.240.7 to 2.1911/2711.380.48 to 4.02
 Sulfasalazine33/1443.61.66 to 7.7831/1373.401.46 to 7.9321/852.621.21 to 5.68n.a.
 Immunosuppressants38/2762.221.43 to 3.46n.a.n.a.32/2472.441.06 to 5.65
 TNF inhibitors30/8030.850.52 to 1.3626/7640.770.42 to 1.4116/2920.820.39 to 1.764/392.000.36 to 11.2
 Abatacept9/811.200.61 to 2.349/751.30.62 to 2.719/681.40.65 to 2.99n.a.
 Rituximab42/1924.042.32 to 7.0322/905.422.77 to 10.6121/864.992.43 to 10.2622/1043.721.21 to 11.48
 Belimumab1/270.710.19 to 2.68n.a.n.a.1/271.070.21 to 5.37
 IL-6 inhibitors5/900.830.38 to 1.841/680.250.03 to 2.431/630.250.03 to 2.334/232.690.88 to 8.19
 IL-17/IL-23/IL-12+23 inhibitors1/1150.250.03 to 2.041/1120.260.03 to 2.06n.a.n.a.
 tsDMARDs15/1451.600.91 to 2.815/1421.750.99 to 3.1213/1181.570.75 to 3.27n.a.
Glucocorticoids (GCs)
 No GCs165/24171Reference109/17211Reference78/8631Reference38/5511Reference
 GCs 1–10 mg/day170/10621.430.98 to 2.0989/5671.360.76 to 2.4578/4641.340.66 to 2.7475/4691.691.11 to 2.57
 GCs>10 mg/day49/2261.691.18 to 2.4112/601.550.67 to 3.5710/441.590.6 to 4.1834/1371.931.11 to 3.36
  • Missing values were imputed via multiple imputation, patient numbers may thus be rounded. Effects significant at level α=0.05 are marked in bold. Patients were excluded from a particular analysis if the medication they received provided ≤20 patients for that analysis or if there were no deaths reported for that specific medication.

  • TNF; tumour necrosis factor; CTD, connective tissue diseases; CVD, cardiovascular duisease; DMARD, disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs; GC, glucocorticoids; IL, interleukin; JIA, juvenile idiopathic arthritis; N, number; n.a., not applicable; tsDMARD, targeted synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs.