Table 1

Baseline characteristics according to use of biologic or targeted synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs for rheumatoid arthritis at the time of COVID-19 onset

Overall
N=2869
Abatacept
n=237
Rituximab
n=364
IL-6 inhibitors
n=317
JAK inhibitors
n=563
TNF inhibitors
n=1388
Demographics
Mean age (years), SD56.7 (13.4)61.4 (14.0)58.0 (12.9)56.4 (12.0)58.0 (12.3)55.2 (14.0)
Female2316 (80.8)188 (79.3)299 (82.1)257 (81.3)470 (83.5)1102 (79.4)
Race/ethnicity
 White1670 (69.0)78 (69.5)187 (64.5)169 (67.9)360 (73.2)829 (69.3)
 Black113 (4.7)5 (3.2)14 (4.8)11 (4.4)22 (4.5)60 (5.0)
 Hispanic472 (19.5)32 (20.8)66 (22.8)46 (18.5)79 (16.1)233 (19.5)
 East Asian81 (3.3)8 (5.2)10 (3.4)12 (4.8)10 (2.0)37 (3.1)
 Other85 (3.3)2 (1.3)13 (4.5)11 (4.4)21 (4.3)38 (3.2)
Continent
 Europe1486 (51.8)103 (43.5)218 (59.9)183 (57.7)283 (50.3)699 (50.4)
 North America1005 (35.0)105 (44.3)111 (30.5)83 (26.2)208 (36.9)498 (35.9)
 South America276 (9.6)20 (8.4)23 (6.3)33 (10.4)55 (9.8)145 (10.4)
 Other302 (10.5)9 (3.8)12 (3.3)18 (5.7)17 (3.0)46 (3.3)
Comorbidity count*
 01494 (52.1)113 (47.7)161 (44.2)161 (50.8)270 (48.0)789 (56.8)
 1837 (29.2)70 (29.5)119 (32.7)99 (31.2)176 (31.3)373 (26.9)
 2538 (18.8)54 (22.8)84 (23.1)57 (18.0)117 (20.8)226 (16.3)
Individual comorbidities
 Hypertension983 (34.3)91 (38.4)121 (33.2)108 (34.1)221 (39.3)442 (31.8)
 Cardiovascular disease247 (8.6)29 (12.2)36 (9.9)32 (10.1)51 (9.1)99 (7.1)
 Diabetes356 (12.5)30 (12.8)54 (14.9)43 (13.6)74 (13.2)155 (11.3)
 Chronic kidney disease98 (3.4)11 (4.7)11 (3.0)14 (4.4)22 (3.9)40 (2.9)
 Lung disease†432 (15.2)41 (17.4)87 (24.0)44 (13.9)92 (16.4)168 (12.3)
 Interstitial lung disease103 (3.6)15 (6.3)40 (11.0)15 (4.7)13 (2.3)20 (1.4)
 Cancer40 (1.5)5 (2.5)27 (7.4)6 (2.2)5 (1.0)11 (0.9)
Obesity354 (12.3)31 (13.1)52 (14.3)43 (13.6)85 (15.1)143 (10.3)
Smoking status
 Ever582 (20.3)104 (43.9)70 (19.2)57 (18.0)99 (17.6)300 (21.6)
 Never1369 (47.7)56 (23.6)142 (39.0)152 (47.9)262 (46.5)694 (50.)
 Missing918 (32.0)77 (32.5)137 (37.6)107 (33.8)202 (35.9)394 (28.4)
Concomitant RA medications
 Any conventional synthetic DMARD1409 (49.1)118 (49.8)194 (53.3)102 (32.2)228 (40.5)767 (55.3)
 Methotrexate1188 (41.4)92 (38.8)146 (40.1)91 (28.7)188 (33.4)671 (48.3)
 Sulfasalazine136 (4.7)9 (3.8)26 (7.1)8 (2.5)18 (3.2)75 (5.4)
 Hydroxychloroquine260 (9.1)25 (10.5)58 (15.9)18 (5.7)43 (7.6)116 (8.4)
 Leflunomide176 (10.5)26 (11.0)49 (13.5)20 (6.3)29 (5.2)117 (8.4)
 Glucocorticoid dose, median (IQR)5.0 (4.0–6.0)5.0 (4.0–5.5)5.0 (5.0–7.5)5.0 (4.5–7.0)5.0 (3.0–5.0)5.0 (5.0–7.0)
Categorical glucocorticoid use/dose
 No glucocorticoid use1756 (61.2)120 (56.9)186 (51.1)173 (54.6)320 (63.5)957 (76.1)
 Glucocorticoid >0–5 mg/day prednisone equivalent600 (20.9)68 (32.2)93 (25.5)69 (21.8)149 (29.6)221 (17.6)
 Glucocorticoid 6–9 mg/day prednisone equivalent68 (2.4)8 (3.8)10 (2.7)15 (4.7)12 (2.4)23 (1.8)
 Glucocorticoid ≥10 mg/day prednisone equivalent142 (4.9)15 (7.1)28 (7.7)19 (6.0)23 (4.6)57 (4.5)
 Missing303 (10.6)26 (11.0)47 (12.9)41 (12.9)59 (10.5)130 (9.4)
RA disease activity by global physician assessment
 Remission or low1949 (67.9)147 (74.2)226 (76.1)198 (77.3)388 (78.7)990 (81.5)
 Moderate or high510 (17.8)51 (25.8)71 (23.9)58 (22.7)105 (21.3)225 (18.5)
 Missing410 (14.3)39 (16.5)67 (18.4)61 (19.2)70 (12.4)173 (12.5)
Confirmed COVID-192333 (81.3)201 (84.8)304 (83.5)244 (77.0)475 (84.4)1109 (79.9)
  • n (%) presented unless otherwise specified.

  • *Comorbidity count included diabetes, lung disease and chronic kidney disease.

  • †Interstitial lung disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma or other lung disease.

  • DMARDs, disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs; IL-6, interleukin 6; JAK, Janus kinase; RA, rheumatoid arthritis; TNF, tumour necrosis factor.