Table 1

SARS-CoV-2 antibody test results in rheumatic disease patients with COVID-19 confirmed by PCR

Age, yearsSexRheumatic disease diagnosisRheumatic disease treatmentTiming of SARS-CoV-2 antibody test(s) relative to first positive COVID-19 PCRSARS-CoV-2 antibody test result(s)COVID-19 complicationsCOVID-19 pharmacologic treatmentCOVID-19 clinical outcome
Negative/variable SARS-CoV-2 antibodies
48FemalePsoriatic arthritisLeflunomide 10 mg daily, prednisone 10 mg dailyT+177 daysNegative total antibody*NoneNoneFully recovered
62FemaleANCA-associated vasculitisRituximab 1 g (started T−6 years, most recent dose T−149 days), azathioprine 100 mg daily, prednisone 7.5 mg dailyT+28 days†
T+71 days
T+111 days
T+216 days
Negative IgG, negative IgM‡
Negative total antibody*
Negative total antibody*
Negative total antibody*
Hospitalisation with ICU admission
Respiratory failure requiring oxygen therapy by high flow nasal cannula
Persistent cough (T+238 days). Oxygen requirement resolved by hospital discharge.
45MaleAntiphospholipid syndromePrednisone 15 mg daily, cyclophosphamide 250 mg daily, rituximab 1 g (started T−5 years, most recent dose T−11 days), eculizumab 900 mg (started and most recent dose T−9 days)T+28 days
T+81 days
T+87 days
T+107 days
Positive IgM, negative IgG‡
Positive IgM, positive IgG‡
Positive IgM, positive IgG‡
Negative total antibody*
Hospitalisation with ICU admission
Respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation; circulatory shock
Remdesivir, SARS-CoV-2 antibody cocktail (regeneron) (T+145 days)Death (T+154 days)
Positive SARS-CoV-2 antibodies
26FemaleSystemic lupus erythematosusNoneT+1 hour
T+7 days
Positive total antibody*
Positive total antibody*
Hospitalisation with ICU admission
TTP requiring plasma exchange and glucocorticoids
NoneRecurrent TTP episode (T+58 days)
71FemaleRheumatoid arthritisNoneT+58 daysPositive total antibody*NoneNoneFully recovered
73MalePsoriatic arthritisEtanercept 50 mg weeklyT+60 daysPositive total antibody*NoneNoneFully recovered
54FemaleSystemic lupus erythematosusRituximab 720 mg (started T−86 days, most recent dose T−2 days)T+60 daysIgG positive, IgM not performed‡NoneNoneFully recovered
63FemaleSystemic lupus erythematosusAzathioprine 100 mg daily, belimumab 720 mg monthly (started T−336 days, most recent dose T−20 days)T+88 daysPositive total antibody*NoneNoneFully recovered
55FemaleSarcoidosisNoneT+93 daysPositive total antibody*NoneNoneFully recovered
52FemaleRheumatoid arthritisNoneT+94 days
T+210 days
Positive total antibody*
Positive total antibody*
Hospitalisation without ICU admission
Supplemental oxygen by nasal cannula
NoneFully recovered
68FemalePolymyositisPrednisone 6 mg daily, methotrexate 25 mg weeklyT+129 daysPositive total antibody*NoneNoneFully recovered
51FemaleNeurosarcoidosisMethotrexate 15 mg weeklyT+155 daysPositive total antibody*NoneNoneFully recovered
72FemalePsoriatic arthritisMethotrexate 25 mg weeklyT+203 daysPositive total tntibody*Hospitalisation without ICU admission; no oxygen requirementNoneProlonged fatigue (T+262 days)
  • *Measured with the Roche Elecsys assay, which reports the positivity of total SARS-CoV-2 antibody (IgM and IgG) and has 99.5% sensitivity at 14 days after COVID-19 infection.

  • †T=time zero, defined as the date of the first positive COVID-19 PCR test.

  • ‡Measured with the Viracor Eurofins assay, which reports IgM and IgG antibody positivity to SARS-CoV-2. The sensitivity of the assay is unknown.

  • ANCA, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody; ICU, intensive care unit; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; T, time zero; TTP, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.