Table 1

Study population characteristics

Study population (RSI and RSII)
Non-users (N=3255)Acenocoumarol users (N=240)
General characteristics
 RSI2394 (73.5%)207 (86.6%)
 RSII861 (26.5%)33 (13.4%)
 Age, years64.2 (6.3)66.6 (6.8)
 Females (%)1778 (54.6%)117 (49.0%)
 Follow-up period, months, median (IQR)76.1 (55.2, 78.5)76.7 (75.1, 79.4)
Smoking status
 Never1028 (31.6%)65 (27.2%)
 Former smoker1538 (47.3%)119 (49.8%)
 Current smoker689 (21.2%)55 (23.0%)
Education
 Primary education385 (11.7%)34 (14.2%)
 Intermediate general education1433 (44.0%)103 (43.1%)
 Higher general education1026 (31.5%))69 (28.9%)
 Higher vocational education/University411 (12.6%)33 (13.8%)
 Physical activity (MET/week)89.9 (44.69)78.27 (41.5)
 Body mass index (BMI), kg/m2 26.3 (3.5)26.9 (3.5)
 Total cholesterol/HDL ratio5.0 (1.6)5.3 (1.5)
 Hypertension (%)1709 (52.3%)143 (59.8%)
 Diabetes mellitus (%)386 (11.9%)41 (17.2%)
 Femoral neck BMD (g/cm2)0.88 (0.13)0.88 (0.12)
Osteoarthritis status*
 Hip OA (%)65 (2.0%)10 (4.6%)
 Knee OA (%)262 (8.5%)26 (12.0%)
MGP risk allele (rs1800801)
 Non-risk allele (A/A)1168 (38.6%)79 (36.3%)
 Risk allele carrier (T/*)1856 (61.4%)137 (63.4%)
VKORC1 Haplotype groups†
 Low—AA447 (14.8%)42 (19.5%)
 Intermediate—AB1425 (47.3%)92 (42.8%)
 High—BB1142 (37.9%)81 (37.7%)
MGP risk allele carrier and VKORC1 BB-haplotype684 (22.7%)51 (23.7%)
  • *Osteoarthritis at baseline was defined as radiographic OA, Kellgren-Lawrence score ≥2 in either the left or right or both investigated joints.

  • VKORC1 groups based on VKORC1 H-Haplotypes and their association with VKORC1 expression/VKAs maintenance dosage; low: low VKORC1 expression and associated with lower required dosage; high: high VKORC1 expression and associated with higher required dosage, also see online supplemental table S1.

  • BMD, bone mineral density; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; MET, metabolic equivalent of task hours; OA, osteoarthritis; RS, Rotterdam Study.