Table 1

Prevalence of clinical manifestations in smokers (n=371) and non-smokers (n=387) in the discovery cohort

Smokers, n (%)Non-smokers, n (%)OR (95% CI)P value
Age at last follow-up, mean (SD)55 (15)50 (17)0.000025
Disease duration, mean (SD)17 (11)16 (12)0.016
Male sex49 (13)48 (13)0.94 (0.61 to 1.45)0.79
Deceased at follow-up55 (15)39 (11)1.19 (0.75 to 1.88)0.45
ACR 1982 classification criteria40
 1 Malar rash205 (55)211 (57)1.00 (0.74 to 1.34)0.97
 2 Discoid rash83 (22)80 (21)0.96 (0.68 to 1.36)0.81
 3 Photosensitivity262 (71)246 (65)1.27 (0.93 to 1.74)0.13
 4 Oral ulcer103 (28)96 (25)1.20 (0.86 to 1.67)0.27
 5 Arthritis306 (82)301 (81)1.11 (0.76 to 1.61)0.59
 6 Serositis179 (48)165 (45)1.10 (0.82 to 1.47)0.52
 7 Renal disorder129 (35)132 (36)1.10 (0.80 to 1.50)0.56
 8 Neurological disorder33 (9)40 (10)0.86 (0.52 to 1.40)0.54
 9 Haematological disorder213 (57)258 (70)0.62 (0.46 to 0.84)0.0021
 10 Immunological disorder245 (66)256 (69)0.97 (0.71 to 1.33)0.86
 Anti-dsDNA224 (61)231 (63)1.02 (0.76 to 1.38)0.88
 11 ANA364 (98)367 (99)0.69 (0.19 to 2.49)0.57
Renal variables
 WHO class I–II12 (5)20 (8)0.71 (0.33 to 1.50)0.37
 WHO class III–IV62 (21)71 (22)1.13 (0.75 to 1.69)0.57
 WHO class V15 (6)16 (6)1.05 (0.50 to 2.20)0.90
 Other*11 (4)6 (2)1.24 (0.50 to 3.06)0.65
 ESRD14 (4)1.41 (0.62 to 3.24)0.42
Cardiovascular events
 MI39 (11)19 (5)1.96 (1.09 to 3.55)0.025
 ICVD45 (12)30 (8)1.37 (0.84 to 2.24)0.21
 VTE61 (16)52 (14)1.14 (0.76 to 1.71)0.52
 Clinical APS68 (20)61 (18)1.08 (0.73 to 1.60)0.68
 Anti-β2GP-I IgG58 (19)57 (18)0.98 (0.69 to 1.39)0.91
 Anti-β2GP-I IgM8 (11)11 (12)0.96 (0.36 to 2.55)0.93
 LA62 (23)57 (21)1.19 (0.79 to 1.80)0.40
 aCL-IgG86 (26)90 (28)1.05 (0.70 to 1.59)0.080
 aCL-IgM34 (14)33 (13)0.96 (0.36 to 2.55)0.93
  • Logistic regression models were used to assess differences between smokers and non-smokers. All analyses were adjusted for age at last follow-up and disease duration.

  • p<0.05 (unadjusted for multiple comparisons) in bold.

  • *Patients with biopsies displaying signs of nephritis but not meeting the criteria for any of the above classes were classified as other.

  • ACR, American College of Rheumatology;40 ANA, antinuclear antibodies; Anti-β2GP-I, anti-β2 Glycoprotein-I; ; APS, antiphospholipid syndrome; dsDNA, double-stranded DNA; ESRD, end-stage renal disease; ICVD, ischaemic cerebrovascular disease; LA, lupus anticoagulant; MI, myocardial infarction; VTE, venous thromboembolism.;