Table 2

Demographic and clinical characteristics

Study population 1: general population (people prescribed NSAIDs in the past 3 years)Study population 2: patients with rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis
Non-use of NSAIDsCurrent use of NSAIDSNon-use of NSAIDsCurrent use of NSAIDS
Total1 927 284536 4231 533 286175 495
Age as of 1 March 2020
 18–<40598 513 (31.1)115 858 (21.6)32 958 (2.1)4433 (2.5)
 40–<50397 201 (20.6)103 076 (19.2)97 870 (6.4)15 813 (9.0)
 50–<60423 937 (22.0)133 066 (24.8)292 186 (19.1)45 397 (25.9)
 60–<70283 639 (14.7)106 205 (19.8)416 489 (27.2)56 947 (32.4)
 70–<80169 281 (8.8)62 221 (11.6)436 477 (28.5)41 350 (23.6)
 80+54 713 (2.8)15 997 (3.0)257 306 (16.8)11 555 (6.6)
 Median, IQR49 (36–60)53 (42–64)68 (58–76)63 (55–71)
Sex
 Female1 093 581 (56.7)317 341 (59.2)951 417 (62.1)110 526 (63.0)
Body mass index
 <18.526 435 (1.4)6041 (1.1)19 616 (1.3)1260 (0.7)
 18.5–24.9484 862 (25.2)114 657 (21.4)379 233 (24.7)31 531 (18.0)
 25–29.9577 087 (29.9)159 573 (29.7)518 602 (33.8)55 387 (31.6)
 30–34.9333 254 (17.3)106 314 (19.8)298 505 (19.5)40 513 (23.1)
 35–39.9138 059 (7.2)50 406 (9.4)119 286 (7.8)20 062 (11.4)
 40+71 503 (3.7)30 438 (5.7)58 801 (3.8)12 396 (7.1)
 Missing296 084 (15.4)68 994 (12.9)139 243 (9.1)14 346 (8.2)
Ethnicity
 White1 236 854 (64.2)357 651 (66.7)1 095 982 (71.5)125 073 (71.3)
 Mixed20 556 (1.1)4696 (0.9)6563 (0.4)830 (0.5)
 Asian/Asian British151 533 (7.9)33 010 (6.2)51 587 (3.4)6969 (4.0)
 Black49 618 (2.6)10 527 (2.0)17 645 (1.2)2106 (1.2)
 Other30 214 (1.6)6925 (1.3)10 916 (0.7)1241 (0.7)
 Missing438 509 (22.8)123 614 (23.0)350 593 (22.9)39 276 (22.4)
Index of multiple deprivation
 1 (least deprived)388 369 (20.2)107 541 (20.0)313 701 (20.5)30 797 (17.5)
 2387 428 (20.1)108 997 (20.3)309 372 (20.2)32 946 (18.8)
 3382 357 (19.8)107 626 (20.1)307 669 (20.1)34 597 (19.7)
 4384 598 (20.0)106 598 (19.9)303 859 (19.8)36 682 (20.9)
 5 (most deprived)384 532 (20.0)105 661 (19.7)298 685 (19.5)40 473 (23.1)
Smoking status
 Never841 256 (43.6)220 293 (41.1)672 833 (43.9)70 283 (40.0)
 Former665 068 (34.5)207 354 (38.7)692 164 (45.1)80 983 (46.1)
 Current389 340 (20.2)103 258 (19.2)164 464 (10.7)23 913 (13.6)
 Missing31 620 (1.6)5518 (1.0)3825 (0.2)316 (0.2)
Comorbidities
 Hypertension353 803 (18.4)128 078 (23.9)625 247 (40.8)66 098 (37.7)
 Heart failure9512 (0.5)2433 (0.5)36 888 (2.4)1413 (0.8)
 Other heart disease27 881 (1.4)8726 (1.6)57 976 (3.8)4202 (2.4)
 Diabetes
 Controlled
 (HbA1c <58 mmol/mol)
122 653 (6.4)42 132 (7.9)177 397 (11.6)19 535 (11.1)
 Uncontrolled
 (HbA1c ≥58 mmol/mol)
50 268 (2.6)16 504 (3.1)58 452 (3.8)6286 (3.6)
 HbA1c not measured4536 (0.2)1303 (0.2)3695 (0.2)419 (0.2)
 COPD42 636 (2.2)15 435 (2.9)85 858 (5.6)8373 (4.8)
 Other respiratory diseases17 270 (0.9)6194 (1.2)38 248 (2.5)3435 (2.0)
 Cancer95 315 (4.9)32 128 (6.0)174 647 (11.4)15 940 (9.1)
 Immunosuppression9285 (0.5)2918 (0.5)8498 (0.6)1009 (0.6)
 Chronic kidney disease51 642 (2.7)17 570 (3.3)164 985 (10.8)11 148 (6.4)
 Osteoarthritis367 954 (19.1)162 676 (30.3)1 473 833 (96.1)162 676 (92.7)
 Rheumatoid arthritis28 690 (1.5)21 526 (4.0)95 056 (6.2)21 526 (12.3)
Primary care consultations
 Median, IQR5 (2–10)7 (4–13)6 (3–11)8 (5–14)
 Min, Max0, 6260, 5760, 4680, 360
A&E attendance
 Median, IQR0 (0–0)0 (0–0)0 (0–0)0 (0–0)
 Min, Max0, 1180, 1520, 710, 63
Vaccination
 Influenza435 383 (22.6)162 082 (30.2)806 064 (52.6)86 515 (49.3)
 Pneumococcal116 464 (6.0)44 902 (8.4)193 145 (12.6)24 744 (14.1)
Medications
 Statin223 221 (11.6)87 169 (16.3)415 120 (27.1)47 020 (26.8)
 Proton-pump inhibitors268 934 (14.0)342 266 (63.8)371 464 (24.2)137 180 (78.2)
 Oral prednisolone39 081 (2.0)16 084 (3.0)61 256 (4.0)8265 (4.7)
 Hydroxychloroquine8074 (0.4)6680 (1.2)16 783 (1.1)5104 (2.9)
 Other DMARDs20 770 (1.1)16 857 (3.1)48 819 (3.2)12 753 (7.3)
  • A&E, accident & emergency; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; DMARDs, disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c; NSAIDs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.