Table 3

Risk factors for change in FVC over the 5-year follow-up in patients with ≥3 serial FVC measurements in univariable and multivariable linear mixed-effect regression analysis

Predictor variableUnivariableMultivariable
Coefficient95% CIP valueCoefficient95% CIP value
Time−0.45−0.72 to −1.70.0020.80.22 to 1.390.007
Reflux/dysphagia symptoms−2.06−5.06 to 0.940.1800.58–2.18 to 3.340.681
Time×reflux/dysphagia symptoms−0.76−1.34 to −0.170.011−0.72−1.34 to −0.100.024
mRSS−0.51−0.69 to −0.33<0.001–0.31–0.47 to –0.15<0.001
Time×mRSS−0.05−0.07 to −0.010.011−0.06−0.10 to −0.020.002
Sex−5.25−8.91 to −1.590.005–3.90–7.29 to –0.530.024
Time×sex−0.97−1.72 to −0.210.012−1.30−2.10 to −0.490.002
Age0.420.31 to 1.53<0.0010.470.37 to 0.57<0.001
DLCO 0.550.47 to 0.62<0.0010.450.37 to 0.52<0.001
ESR−0.14−0.21 to −0.010.001−0.09−0.15 to −0.030.005
NYHA class−14.59−18.7 to −10.49<0.001−4.76−6.59 to −2.92<0.001
ACA11.427.65 to 15.19<0.001
ARA10.951.62 to 20.270.021
ATA−5.01−7.98 to −2.050.001
CRP−7.72−11.01 to −4.43<0.001
dcSSc−6.37−7.43 to −3.32<0.001
  • ACA, anti-centromere antibody; ARA, anti-RNA polymerase III antibody; ATA, anti-topoisomerase I antibody; CRP, C-reactive protein; dcSSc, diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis; DLCO, diffusion capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide; ESR, erythrocyte sedimentation rate; FVC, forced vital capacity; mRSS, modified Rodnan skin score; NYHA, New York Heart Association.