Table 4

Predictive criteria for COVID-19 cytokine storm

Entry criteria (must be all met)Cut-off values
+Signs/symptoms of COVID-19
±RT-PCR positive for COVID-19
+GGO by HRCT (or chest X-ray)
Ferritin>250 ng/mL
C reactive protein>4.6 mg/dL
AND (one variable from each cluster)
Cluster I
  Albumin<2.8 g/dL
  Lymphocytes (%)<10.2
  Neutrophil Abs>11.4 K/mm3
Cluster II
  ALT>60 U/L
  AST>87 U/L
  D-dimers>4,930 ng/mL
  LDH>416 U/L
  Troponin I>1.09 ng/mL
Cluster III
  Anion gap<6.8 mmol/L
  Chloride>106 mmol/L
  Potassium>4.9 mmol/L
  BUN:creatinine ratio>29 ratio
  • Criteria are met when patients fulfil all the entry criteria and at least one criterion per each cluster. Cut-off values were calculated using a genetic algorithm.

  • Abs, absolute numbers; ALT, alanine aminotransferase; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; BUN, blood urea nitrogen; GGO, ground-glass opacity; HTCT, high-resolution CT; LDH, lactate dehydrogenase; RT-PCR, reverse transcriptase PCR.