Table 2

Comparison between patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with extensive versus normal blood-brain barrier (BBB) leakage

Normal BBB leakage (n=49)Extensive BBB leakage (n=16)P value
Per cent of brain volume with pathological leakage4.2±216.5±5.7 2∙10–9
Female (%)87.887.51
Age (years; mean±SD)48.7±13.449.5±13.60.8
 Caucasian (%)89.887.5
 Other (%)10.212.5
Years of education15.5±3.214.9±30.5
Smokers (%): current/ever6.1/30.625/56.3 0.03/0.06
Disease duration (year; mean±SD)16.5±10.511±9.80.052
Prior NP events (%)79.668.80.4
Prior NP events attributed to SLE (%)22.4250.8
SLEDAI-2K score (mean±SD) with/without NP variables2.4±2.4/2.4±2.44±5.4/4±5.40.6/0.6
SLICC/ACR damage index score
(mean±SD) with/without NP variables
Medications (%)
 Psychoactive drugs42.931.30.4
Autoantibody positivity N (%)
 Lupus anticoagulant26.531.250.7
Comorbidities (%)
  • The Wilcoxon rank sum test and χ2 test were used for comparison of continuous and categorical data, respectively.

  • NP, neuropsychiatric; SLEDAI-2K, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index 2000; SLICC/ACR, Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology.