Table 1

Meta-regression of the variables potentially associated with the prevalence of COVID-19

VariablesNumber of studiesCoefficientSELower
95% CI
Upper
95% CI
Z valueP value
Age (mean/median)420.0430.024−0.0030.0891.820.069
Male (%)44−0.0180.011−0.0400.004−1.640.101
HTN (%)120.0250.029−0.0310.0810.880.377
DM (%)130.0600.099−0.1340.2530.600.546
Obesity (%)<10NANANANANANA
Comorbidities (≥1) (%)<10NANANANANANA
Glucocorticoids (%)260.0200.0100.0010.0402.040.042
csDMARDs (%)240.0050.010−0.0150.0250.470.637
b/tsDMARDs (%, mono)31−0.0060.008−0.0210.010−0.720.469
b/tsDMARDs (%, combo)<10NANANANANANA
b/tsDMARDs
(%, mono/combo)
34−0.0040.007−0.0190.010−0.560.574
TNF antagonists
(%, mono/combo)
30−0.0200.013−0.0450.004−1.630.104
Non-TNF antagonists
(% mono/combo)
29−0.0060.012−0.0290.018−0.470.641
  • b/tsDMARDs, biologic or targeted synthetic DMARDs (abatacept, belimumab, CD-20, IL-1, IL-6, IL-12/23, IL-23, IL-17, α4β7 integrin, TNF and Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors); combo, combination therapy with csDMARDs; csDMARDs, conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, thiopurines, cyclophosphamide, cyclosporine, tacrolimus, leflunomide, methotrexate, mycophenolate mofetil/mycophenolic acid and sulfasalazine); DM, diabetes; HTN, hypertension; mono, monotherapy; NA, not available; TNF, tumour necrosis factor.