Table 2

Meta-regression of the variables potentially associated with clinical outcomes of COVID-19

VariablesNumber of studiesCoefficientSELower
95% CI
Upper
95% CI
Z valueP value
Hospitalisation
Age (mean/median)500.0700.0130.0460.0955.61<0.001
Male (%)50−0.0120.008−0.0280.004−1.520.129
HTN (%)380.0170.0080.0020.0322.260.024
DM (%)360.0240.014−0.0040.0521.670.095
Obesity (%)240.0120.009−0.0060.0301.320.187
Comorbidities (≥1) (%)270.0240.0080.0070.0402.850.004
Glucocorticoids (%)440.0110.006−0.00030.0221.910.056
csDMARDs (%)400.0140.0050.0050.0232.940.003
b/tsDMARDs (%, mono)49−0.0140.004−0.022−0.005−3.130.002
b/tsDMARDs (%, combo)260.0160.0070.0010.0302.110.035
b/tsDMARDs
(%, mono/combo)
49−0.0050.004−0.0130.003−1.180.237
TNF antagonists
(%, mono)
44−0.0190.007−0.032−0.005−2.660.008
TNF antagonists
(%, combo)
220.0280.017−0.0060.0621.590.111
TNF antagonists
(%, mono/combo)
46−0.0150.007−0.027−0.002−2.240.025
Non-TNF antagonists
(%, mono)
44−0.0120.008−0.0270.002−1.640.102
Non-TNF antagonists
(%, combo)
210.0390.0190.0030.0762.090.036
Non-TNF antagonists
(%, mono/combo)
47−0.0020.007−0.0150.011−0.330.739
Death
Age (mean/median)480.0680.0100.0480.0896.54<0.001
Male (%)48−0.0060.008−0.0230.010−0.760.449
HTN (%)370.0340.0060.0220.0455.84<0.001
DM (%)350.0380.0130.0120.0642.860.004
Obesity (%)240.0130.007−0.0010.0271.870.062
Comorbidities (≥1) (%)260.0130.008−0.0040.0291.530.127
Glucocorticoids (%)430.0110.006−0.0010.0221.780.075
csDMARDs (%)400.0120.0040.0040.0202.990.003
b/tsDMARDs (%, mono)49−0.0110.005−0.020−0.002−2.310.021
b/tsDMARDs (%, combo)260.0130.009−0.0040.0301.520.128
b/tsDMARDs
(%, mono/combo)
49−0.0100.004−0.018−0.002−2.480.013
TNF antagonists
(%, mono)
44−0.0180.008−0.033−0.003−2.290.022
TNF antagonists
(%, combo)
220.0090.019−0.0290.0470.470.642
TNF antagonists
(%, mono/combo)
46−0.0170.007−0.030−0.004−2.550.011
Non-TNF antagonists
(%, mono)
45−0.0060.008−0.0220.010−0.780.438
Non-TNF antagonists
(%, combo)
210.0300.019−0.0070.0661.570.115
Non-TNF antagonists
(%, mono/combo)
48−0.0060.007−0.0190.007−0.870.387
  • b/tsDMARDs, biologic or targeted synthetic DMARDs (abatacept, belimumab, CD-20, IL-1, IL-6, IL-12/23, IL-23, IL-17, TNF, α4β7 integrin and Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors); combo, combination therapy with csDMARDs; csDMARDs, conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, thiopurines, cyclophosphamide, cyclosporine, tacrolimus, leflunomide, methotrexate, mycophenolate mofetil/mycophenolic acid and sulfasalazine); DM, diabetes; HTN, hypertension; mono, monotherapy; TNF, tumour necrosis factor.