Table 1

Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with AIRD and with COVID-19 (admitted vs no admitted at the hospital)

VariableAIRD–COVID-19 patientsAIRD–COVID non-admitted patientsAIRD–COVID admitted patientsP value
(N=123)(N=69)(N=54)
Women, n (%)86 (69.92)54 (78.26)32 (59.26)0.02
Age (years), mean (SD)59.88 (14.90)52.91 (9.58)68.78 (15.79)0.0001
Time since diagnosis (years), mean (SD)10.65 (8.31)10.37 (7.99)11 (8.77)0.8
PCR test, n (%)0
 Positive58(47)17(25)41(76)
 Negative3 (2)03 (5)
 Not performed62(51)52(75)10 (19)
Smoking habit (active vs none)4 (3.25)1 (1.45)3 (5.56)0.31
Diagnosis (AIRD), n (%)0.01
 Rheumatoid arthritis50 (40.65)32 (46.38)18 (33.33)
 Axial spondyloarthritis18 (14.63)11 (15.94)7 (12.96)
 Polymyalgia rheumatica6 (4.88)06 (11.11)
 Psoriatic arthritis6 (4.88)3 (4.35)3 (5.56)
 Systemic lupus erythematosus8 (6.50)6 (8.70)2 (3.70)
 Mixed connective tissue disease6 (4.88)2 (2.90)4 (7.41)
 Sjogren’s syndrome9 (7.32)5 (7.25)4 (7.41)
 Vasculitis2 (1.63)02 (3.70)
 Uveitis1 (0.81)1 (1.45)0
 Systemic sclerosis1 (0.81)01 (1.85)
 Inflammatory polyarthritis8 (6.50)6 (8.70)2 (3.20)
 Polychondritis1 (0.81)01 (1.85)
 Polymyositis1 (0.81)01 (1.85)
 Raynaud phenomenon3 (2.44)03 (5.56)
 Other*3 (2.44)3 (4.35)0
Comorbidities, n (%)
 Hypertension40 (32.52)14 (20.29)26 (48.15)0.002
 Dyslipidaemia27 (21.95)12 (17.35)15 (27.38)0.19
 Depression9 (7.32)8 (11.59)1 (1.85)0.039
 Diabetes mellitus17 (13.82)4 (5.80)13 (24.07)0.007
 Heart disease15 (12.20)5 (7.25)10 (18.52)0.09
 Vascular disease8 (6.50)2 (2.90)6 (11.11)0.13
 Liver disease7 (5.69)3 (4.35)4 (7.41)0.69
 Kidney disease6 (4.88)06 (11.11)0.006
 Lung disease (ILD/COPD)19 (15.45)6 (8.70)13 (24.07)0.02
 Cancer5 (4.07)1 (1.45)4 (7.41)0.16
 Venous thrombosis/lung embolism3 (2.44)03 (5.56)0.08
 Thyroid disease17 (13.8)12 (17.39)5 (9.26)0.29
NSAIDs, n (%)30 (24.39)22 (31.88)8 (14.81)0.03
Glucocorticoids, n (%)61 (49.59)29 (42.03)32 (59.26)0.07
csDMARDs, n (%)
 Methotrexate–leflunomide–azathioprine68 (55.28)40 (57.97)28 (51.85)0.49
 Sulfasalazine9 (7.32)5 (7.25)4 (7.41)0.97
 Antimalarials27 (21.95)18 (26.09)9 (16.67)0.21
Ts/bDMARDs, n (%)26 (21.14)19 (27.54)7 (12.96)0.04
 Anti-TNF-alpha agent17 (13.82)15 (21.74)2 (3.70)0.004
 Other biologics9 (7.32)4 (5.80)5 (9.26)0.4
  Abatacept1 (0.81)1 (1.45)00.99
  Tocilizumab2 (1.63)1 (1.45)1 (1.85)0.99
  Belimumab1 (0.81)1 (1.45)00
  Rituximab5 (4.07)1 (1.45)4 (7.41)0.16
JAKi, n (%)1 (0.89)01 (2)0.43
  • *Others: inflammatory bowel disease, antiphospholipid syndrome, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, autoinflammatory syndromes and sarcoidosis.

  • †Heart disease: arrhythmias,valve disease, cardiomyopathy and heart failure. Ischaemic vascular disease: stroke, cardiovascular and peripheral vascular disease.

  • AIRD, autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic disease; Anti-TNF, tumour necrosis factor-alpha; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; csDMARD, conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug; ILD, interstitial lung disease; JAKi, JAK inhibitor; ts/bDMARDs, target synthetic/biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug.