Table 1

Pooled data about the occurrence of COVID-19 in patients with SLE

General demographics
ReferenceSettingCountryEstimated country SLE prevalence (cases/100 000 inhabitants)Reference region/areaPopulation (millions)Expected SLE cases in region/area (thousands)Number of patients with SLE describedEstimated coverage of total SLE cases for region/area (%)
Chen et al4CohortChina40*Hubei59221010.5
Mathian et al1Hospitalised patientsFrance50†UnspecifiedNANA17NA
D’Silva et al16Infected patientsUSA20–150‡Massachusetts71–1010NA
Favalli et al8CohortItaly50–70§Lombardy105–7620.9–1.2
Emmi et al9CohortItaly50–70§Tuscany42–31174.5–6.3
So et al20PopulationChina (Hong-Kong)10020Hong Kong88NANA
Bozzalla Cassione et al5CohortItaly50–70§Lombardy and Emilia Romagna157–101651.6
Huang et al15Hospitalised patientsChina401Hubei59223<0.1
Konig et al19RegistryNANANANANA80NA
Pablos et al13Cohort/hospitalised patientsSpain80–210¶NA32***2253100
Wallace B et al17Infected patientsUSA20–150‡Michigan102–155<0.1–0.3
Holubar et al6CohortFrance50†Occitanie631204.1
Zen et al10CohortItaly50–70§Veneto52–339711.6–16.2
Quartuccio et al11Cohort‡‡Italy50–70§Province of Udine0.50.2–0.33812–16
Gartshteyn et al14Cohort/hospitalisedUSA20–150‡New York94–2918
(screened 450)
Ramirez et al2CohortItaly50–70§Lombardy105–74175.8–8.1
Fredi et al12CohortItaly50–70§Lombardy105–712ND
Nuño et al18Infected patientsSpain80–210¶Madrid75–1413ND
Vezzoli et al7CohortItaly50–70§Lombardy105–76≤0.1
Gendebien et al3CohortBelgiumUnknownUnspecifiedNANA225NA
COVID-19 epidemiology
End of observationPrevalence of COVID-19 in region/ area (%)**Total SLE+COVID-19: N (%)PCR-confirmed SLE+COVID-19: N (%)Presumptive SLE+COVID-19: N (%)Hospitalisations (%)Use of HCQ in SLE+COVID-19: N (%)Use of HCQ in SLE without COVID-19 N (%)
Chen et al429 February 20200.12 (2.0)2 (1.2)NDNDNDND
Mathian et al16 April 2020NA17 (NA)17 (NA)0 (NA)NA17/17 (100)ND
D’Silva et al168 April 20200.210 (NA)10 (NA)NDNDNDND
Favalli et al810 April 20200.68 (12.9)0 (0)8 (12.9)NDNDND
Emmi et al914 April 20200.24 (3.4)0 (0)4 (3.4)0.0NDND
So et al2015 April 2020<0.10 (0.0)0 (0)0 (0)0.0NDND
Bozzalla Cassione et al516 April 20200.612 (7.3)4 (2.4)8 (4.8)0.610/12 (83)127/153 (83)
Huang et al1516 April 20200.13 (NA)NANANANDND
Konig et al1917 April 2020NA80 (NA)NANANA51/80 (64)ND
Pablos et al1317 April 20200.614 (NA)14 (0.6)NDNANDND
Wallace B et al1720 April 20200.45 (NA)NDNDNA4/5 (80)
Holubar J et al624 April 20200.18 (6.7)0 (0)8 (6.7)0.0NDND
Zen et al1025 April 20200.415 (3.8)1 (0.3)14 (3.5)††0.3NDND
Quartuccio et al1125 April 20200.20 (NA)0 (NA)0 (NA)NANDND
Gartshteyn et al1426 April 20201.818 (4.0)10 (2.2)8 (1.8)0.813/18 (72)ND
Ramirez et al227 April 20200.714 (3.4)5 (1.2)9 (2.2)0.211/14 (79)259 (69)
Fredi et al121 MAY 20200.8ND5 (ND)7 (ND)NDNDND
Nuño et al188 June 20201.113 (NA)NDNDNDNDND
Vezzoli et al7NDNA2 (NA)ND2 (NA)NANDND
Gendebien et al3NDNA18 (8.0)5 (2.0)13 (5.8)0.912/18 (67)140 (68)
  • *According to Xiang et al. Rheum Int, 2009.

  • †According to Arnaud et al. Autoimmun Rev, 2014.

  • ‡According to Lawrence et al. Arthr Rheum, 1998, Chakravarty et al. Arthr Rheum, 2007 and Pons-Estel et al. Semin Arthr Rheum, 2010.

  • §According to Benucci et al. Med Sci Monit, 2005 and to the report by the Society-of-Patients with Rheumatic Diseases of the Emilia-Romagna Region (Il Notiziario del Malato Reumatico, 2015; 43).

  • ¶According to Cortes Verdu et al. Rheumatology, 2020 and Pablos et al Ann Rheum Dis, 2020.

  • **At the end of observation for each study. ***Rounded actual figure (2.253) rather than estimate is reported. ††Considering patients with ‘fever plus cough plus one more symptom’.10 ‡‡Only patients on biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs or small-molecule disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs were considered.

  • HCQ, hydroxychloroquine; NA, not applicable; ND, no data; SLE, systemic lupus erythematosus.