Table 1

Demographic, clinical characteristics, outcome and laboratory findings

CharacteristicsPatient 1Patient 2Patient 3Patient 4Patient 5
Demographic
 Age (years)4650575358
 GenderFemaleFemaleFemaleFemaleFemale
SLE
 SLE manifestationsMalar rash, arthritis, ANA, dsDNAMalar rash, photosensitivity arthritis, Raynaud’s phenomenon, ANA, dsDNAArthritis, autoimune haemolytic anaemia, low complement,
ANA, dsDNA
Discoid rash, photosensitivity, oral ulcer, arthritis, leucopeniaArthritis, pancytopenia, oral ulcer, ANA
 Disease activityStableFlare during admissionFlare during admissionActiveStable
 Hydroxychloroquine at baselineYes, 8 yearsYes, 12 yearsYes, 12 yearsYes, 20 yearsYes, 14 years
 Prednisolone at baselineNoNoNoYes, 10 mg dailyNo
 MedicationsSulfasalazineAzathioprineNoIntravenous belimumabNo
 ACE-I/ARBLosartanNoLosartanPerindoprilNo
ComorbiditiesHypertension,
Obesity
NoHypertension, dyslipidaemia,
obesity
Hypertension, diabetes,
obesity
Hypertension, Graves’ disease postradioactitive iodine, obesity
 Body Mass Index (kg/m2)35.220.532.336.830.4
Clinical
 Symptoms at disease onsetFever, diarrhoea, cough, runny nose, dyspnoeaFever, cough, multiple cervical lymph nodesLethargy, loss of appetite, arthralgia, haemolytic anaemiaFever, cough dyspnoeaFever, cough, myalgia
 Imaging featuresBibasal lungs consolidationBilateral lower zone recticular opacitiesFocal air space opacities in the right middle and lower zonesBilateral air space opacities in the midzone and right baseRight perihilar infiltrates
 Clinical stage of COVID-195 (ARDS)3B3B5 (intubated)3A
Treatment
 HydroxychloroquineYesYesYesYesYes
 Lopinavir/ritonavirNoYesYesYesYes
 Subcutaneous interferon betaNoNoNoYesNo
 Intravenous antibioticYes
Augmentin/azithromycin/piperacillin/tazobactam
Yes
Ceftriaxone
Yes
Piperacillin/tazobactam
Yes
Ceftriaxone
No
 Intravenous hydrocortisone/intravenous methylprednisoloneNoYesYesYesNo
OutcomesDeathHome wellHome wellHome wellHome well
  • Clinical staging of COVID-19: 1, asymptomatic; 2, symptomatic, no pneumonia; 3, symptomatic, pneumonia; A, without fever; B, with fever; 4, symptomatic, pneumonia, requiring supplemental oxygen; 5, critically ill with multiorgan failure.

  • ACE-I, ACE inhibitor; ANA, antinuclear antibody; ARB, angiotensin II receptor blocker; ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome; dsDNA, double-stranded DNA; od, once a day; SLE, systemic lupus erythematosus.