Table 1

Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients’ cohort

Total
(n=56)
Sarilumab
(n=28)
Comparison group
(n=28)
P value
Age (years)56 (51–60)56 (49–60)57 (52–60)0.37
Male sex, n (%)44 (78)24 (85)20 (71)0.32
Duration of symptoms before enrolment (days)7 (7–10)7 (6–10)7 (7–10)0.81
Hospitalisation before enrolment (days)2 (1–3)2 (1–3)3 (1–3)0.51
Coexisting conditions, n (%)
 Arterial hypertension17 (30)6 (21)11 (39)0.24
 Tobacco smoking10 (18)5 (18)5 (18)0.99
 Dyslipidaemia8 (14)4 (14)4 (14)0.99
 Coronary artery disease6 (21)2 (8)4 (14)0.66
 Type 2 diabetes9 (16)3 (11)6 (21)0.46
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease2 (4)1 (4)1 (4)0.99
 Chronic renal failure3 (5)1 (4)2 (8)0.99
Oxygen support, n (%)
 Non-invasive positive-pressure ventilation41 (73)21 (75)20 (71)0.99
 High-flow oxygen (FiO2 ≥40 mm Hg)15 (27)7 (25)8 (28)0.99
Respiratory status, n (%)
 PaO2/FiO2 ratio 200–3004 (7)1 (4)3 (11)0.61
 PaO2/FiO2 ratio 100–20022 (39)10 (36)12 (43)0.78
 PaO2/FiO2 ratio <10030 (54)17 (60)13 (46)0.42
Fever >38°C, n (%)37 (66)20 (64)17 (54)0.57
Laboratory values
 Neutrophils (normal 1800–7000 cells/µL)6000 (4000–8600)6350 (3850–8525))5400 (4000–8650)0.81
 Lymphocytes (normal 1000–4800 cells/µL)900 (700–1200)950 (700–1175)800 (600–1200)0.51
 Platelets (normal 130–400 cells/µL)242 (185–315)255 (182–300)221 (176–409)0.79
 LDH (normal 125–220 IU/L)479 (394–594)468 (397–585)495 (389–635)0.64
 CRP (normal <6 mg/L)152 (116–210)143 (101–224)152 (122–208)0.54
 Ferritin (normal 30–400 ng/mL)1376 (1023–6927)1849 (1006–2904)1234 (1066–2987)0.97
 IL-6 (normal <7 pg/mL)60 (36.4–126)67.5 (37.5–127)46 (34–117)0.68
 D-dimer (normal 0.27–0.77 µg/mL)1.41 (0.78–2.29)1.27 (0.59–1.99)2 (0.88–5.96)0.07
 Creatine kinase (normal 20–195 IU/L)115 (62–214)135 (69–216)87 (29–162)0.17
 AST (normal 5–35 IU/L)57 (39–86)57 (42–79)55 (28–98)0.61
 ALT (normal 6–59 IU/L)47 (30–73)47 (34–73)49 (24–88)0.83
Radiological features*
 Consolidation (cc)516 (289–828)504 (288–846)622 (266–993)0.97
 Consolidation (%)15.8 (7.1–26.1)16.6 (7.4–28.3)14.2 (5.2–37.2)0.72
 Ground glass (cc)1129 (954–1378)1194 (963–1384)992 (843–2138)0.41
 Ground glass (%)33.9 (30.3–44.6)34.5 (31.1–43.8)32.2 (19.8–55.6)0.77
 Unaffected lung (cc)1289 (801–2761)1241 (781–2467)1467 (484–3203)0.86
 Unaffected lung (%)44.6 (26.1–60)44.3 (26.5–59.2)47.6 (10.1–74.85)0.97
  • Continuous data are reported as median (IQR). Categorical data are reported as number of patients (n) and percentage (%). A p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

  • *CT scan was performed at baseline in n=20 patients treated with sarilumab and in n=8 patients treated with standard of care.

  • ALT, alanine aminotransferase; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; CRP, C-reactive protein; IL-6, interleukin 6; LDH, lactate dehydrogenase; PaO2/FiO2 ratio, partial pressure of arterial oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio.