Table 1

Demographic and clinical characteristics of study population

HCQ users
(n=112)
Non-HCQ users
(n=802)
P value
Age (mean±SD)57.3±14.254.5±160.06
Female96 (85.7%)528 (65.8%)<0.0001
Disease duration (mean±SD)11.4±1013.4±90.07
Diagnosis
 Rheumatoid arthritis79 (70.6%)401 (50%)<0.0001
 Spondyloarthritis8 (7.1%)307 (38.2%)<0.0001
 Connective tissue diseases21 (18.7%)52 (6.5%)<0.0001
 Other4 (3.6%)42 (5.3%)0.64
Concomitant bDMARD50 (44.6%)605 (75.4%)<0.0001
Concomitant corticosteroids70 (62.5%)253 (31.5%)<0.0001
Comorbidities (≥1)39 (34.8%)302 (37.6%)0.60
COVID-19
 Contagion prevention93 (83%)700 (87.2%)0.23
 Treatment discontinuation4 (3.6%)42 (5.2%)0.54
 Definite contact with COVID-19 positive subjects2 (1.8%)14 (1.7%)0.90
 COVID-19 positive swab1 (0.89%)5 (0.62%)0.64
 Respiratory symptoms (no swab)18 (16%)117 (14.6%)0.67
  • P value was calculated by using Fisher’s test for categorical variables and t-test for continuous variables. Respiratory symptoms, at least one between fever >37.5°C, cough, or dyspnoea of recent onset.

  • bDMARD, biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs; HCQ, hydroxychloroquine.