Table 2

Demographic and clinical characteristics of lupus patients in the whole cohort and in patients with cSLEDAI=0 for at least 1 year

Whole cohort
646 (100)
cSLEDAI=0 for at least 1 yearP value
Overall
548 (84.8)
PGA <0.5 concordant with cSLEDAI=0
353 (64.4)
PGA <0.5
discordant with cSLEDAI=0 195 (35.6)
Female585 (90.6)502 (77.8)324 (64.5)178 (35.5)ns
Age at baseline, years40.6±12.140.7±12.239.8±12.342.4±12.00.015
SLE duration ≤2 years159 (24.6)139 (21.5)107 (77.0)52 (37.4)ns
Disease duration, years9.2±6.78.9±6.89.1±6.88.7±6.9ns
Damage
 SDI baseline0.55±0.960.52±0.940.50±0.960.55±0.91ns
 SDI increase during FU0.43±0.740.36±0.670.35±0.680.37±0.67ns
 SDI increase during FU206 (31.9)149 (27.2)92 (26.1)57 (29.2)ns
 GC related SDI88 (13.6)69 (12.6)40 (11.3)29 (14.9)ns
 GC possibly related SDI43 (6.7)33 (6.0)21 (5.9)12 (6.2)ns
 GC independent SDI101 (15.6)64 (11.7)43 (12.2)21 (10.8)ns
Lupus flare during FU
 Muco-cutaneous243 (37.6)189 (34.5)93 (26.3)44 (22.6)ns
 Musculoskeletal249 (38.5)213 (38.9)97 (27.5)70 (35.9)0.040
 Serositic45 (7.0)37 (6.8)22 (6.2)6 (3.1)ns
 Neurological36 (5.6)28 (5.1)12 (3.4)8 (4.1)ns
 Glomerulonephritis202 (31.3)149 (27.2)76 (21.5)36 (18.5)ns
 Haematological166 (25.7)138 (25.2)81 (22.9)39 (20.0)ns
Therapy during follow-up
 Cumulative PDN, grams11.25±14.559.87±13.458.64±11.4012.10±16.310.004
 Immunosuppressants316 (48.9)250 (45.6)150 (42.5)100 (51.3)0.048
 Antimalarials460 (71.2)394 (71.9)248 (70.3)146 (74.9)ns
 Belimumab48 (7.4)32 (4.9)19 (59.4)13 (40.6)ns
Previous treatments
 Immunosuppressant ever381 (59.0)306 (55.8)199 (56.4)107 (54.9)ns
 Mycophenolate Mofetil197 (30.5)150 (27.4)103 (29.2)47 (24.1)ns
 Cyclophosphamide144 (22.3)111 (20.3)75 (21.2)36 (18.5)ns
 Azathioprine200 (31.0)158 (28.8)105 (29.7)53 (27.2)ns
 Cyclosporine A110 (17.0)83 (15.2)56 (15.9)27 (13.8)ns
 Methotrexate90 (13.9)67 (12.2)32 (9.1)35 (17.9)0.002
 Antimalarials483 (74.8)409 (74.6)267 (75.6)142 (72.8)ns
 Rituximab31 (4.8)18 (3.3)11 (3.1)7 (3.6)ns
 Belimumab41 (6.4)29 (5.3)15 (4.2)14 (7.2)ns
 IV Ig28 (4.3)19 (3.5)10 (2.8)9 (4.6)ns
 Plasmapheresis26 (4.0)20 (3.7)11 (3.1)9 (4.6)ns
Previous lupus manifestations, ever
 Muco-cutaneous412 (63.8)342 (62.4)214 (60.6)128 (65.6)ns
 Musculoskeletal436 (67.5)371 (67.7)230 (65.2)141 (72.3)ns
 Serosal125 (19.4)98 (17.9)65 (18.4)33 (16.9)ns
 Neurological103 (15.9)82 (15.0)39 (11.0)43 (22.1)0.001
 Glomerulonephritis262 (40.6)206 (37.6)148 (41.9)58 (29.7)0.005
 Haematological245 (37.9)211 (38.5)139 (39.4)72 (36.9)ns
 Anti-dsDNA antibodies490 (75.9)412 (75.2)259 (73.4)153 (78.5)ns
 Anti-SSA/SSB antibodies275 (42.7)229 (41.9)145 (41.2)84 (43.3)ns
 Anti-U1RNP antibodies135 (20.9)107 (19.6)76 (21.6)31 (15.9)ns
 Anti-Sm antibodies93 (14.4)74 (13.5)45 (12.7)29 (14.9)ns
 Antiphospholipid antibodies258 (39.9)220 (40.1)140 (39.7)80 (41.0)ns
 Antiphospholipid syndrome94 (14.6)80 (14.6)51 (14.4)29 (14.9)ns
  • Data are reported as number (%) or mean±SD.

  • anti-dsDNA, anti double-stranded DNA; anti-U1RNP, anti-(U1) ribonucleoprotein; cSLEDAI, clinical SLE Disease Activity Index 2000; FU, follow-up; GC, glucocorticoids; IV Ig, intravenous immunoglobulines; ns, not significant; PDN, prednisone; PGA, physician global assessment; SDI, Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index; SLE, systemic lupus erythematosus.