Table 1

Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with rheumatic disease with COVID-19 (n=600)

N (%)
 Region of the Americas: North340 (57)
 Region of the Americas: South16 (3)
 European region218 (36)
 African region<5 (<1)
 Eastern Mediterranean region11 (2)
 South-East Asian region<5 (<1)
 Western Pacific region13 (2)
Female423 (71)
Age (years)
 18–2932 (5)
 30–49169 (28)
 50–65229 (38)
>65170 (28)
 Median (IQR)56 (45–67)
Most common rheumatic disease diagnoses*
 Rheumatoid arthritis230 (38)
 Systemic lupus erythematosus85 (14)
 Psoriatic arthritis74 (12)
 Axial spondyloarthritis or other spondyloarthritis48 (8)
 Vasculitis44 (7)
 Sjögren's syndrome28 (5)
 Other inflammatory arthritis21 (4)
 Inflammatory myopathy20 (3)
 Gout19 (3)
 Systemic sclerosis16 (3)
 Polymyalgia rheumatica12 (2)
 Sarcoidosis10 (2)
 Other28 (5)
Most common comorbidities
 Hypertension199 (33)
 Lung disease†127 (21)
 Diabetes69 (12)
 Cardiovascular disease63 (11)
 Chronic renal insufficiency/end-stage renal disease40 (7)
Disease activity (n=575)
 Remission173 (30)
 Minimal or low disease activity286 (50)
 Moderate disease activity102 (18)
 Severe or high disease activity14 (2)
Smoking status (n=518)
 Ever129 (25)
 Never389 (75)
Medication prior to COVID-19 diagnosis‡
 No DMARD97 (16)
 csDMARD only, including antimalarial therapy272 (45)
 csDMARD only, excluding antimalarial therapy220 (37)
 Antimalarial, with or without other DMARD130 (22)
 Antimalarial only52 (9)
 b/tsDMARDs only107 (18)
 csDMARD+b/tsDMARD combination therapy124 (21)
 NSAIDs (n=531)111 (21)
 Prednisone-equivalent glucocorticoids (n=592)
 None403 (68)
 1–9 mg/day125 (21)
>10 mg/day64 (11)
Hospitalised277 (46)
Deceased55 (9)
Reported days from onset to resolution or death (n=275), median (IQR)13 (8–17)
  • N (column %) for categorical variables unless otherwise noted.

  • Percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding.

  • *Cases could have more than one disease diagnosis. ‘Other’ rheumatic disease category included (each n<10): undifferentiated connective tissue disease; ocular inflammation; autoinflammatory syndrome; mixed connective tissue disease; antiphospholipid antibody syndrome; calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease; systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis; juvenile idiopathic arthritis, not systemic; IgG4-related disease.

  • †Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, interstitial lung disease or other not specified.

  • ‡csDMARD medications included: antimalarials (hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine), azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, cyclosporine, leflunomide, methotrexate, mycophenolate mofetil/mycophenolic acid, sulfasalazine, tacrolimus; b/tsDMARD included: abatacept, belimumab, CD-20 inhibitors, IL-1 inhibitors, IL-6 inhibitors, IL-12/IL-23 inhibitors, IL-17 inhibitors, anti-TNF and Janus Kinase inhibitors.

  • b/tsDMARD, biologic or targeted synthetic DMARD; csDMARD, conventional synthetic DMARD; DMARD, disease-modifying antirheumatic drug; IL, interleukin; NSAID, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug; TNF, tumour necrosis factor.