Table 1

Relationships between RA activity indices, disease biomarkers, gut bacterial counts, LPS-related biomarkers and IgG and IgA anti-Pg LPS antibodies in 87 patients with RA.

Top: slope values
Bottom: p valu
Activity indicesDisease biomarkerLPS-related biomarkerAnti-Pg -LPS
DAS28-ESRDAS28-CRPSJCTJCpVASdVASPain VASmHAQSDAICDAIESRCRPRFAnti-CCPHbMMP-3TNFIL-6Faecal LPSSerum LPSLBPENCIgG anti-Pg- LPSIgA anti-Pg- LPS
Gut bacterial countsTotal bacteria−0.042
0.698
−0.132
0.224
0.180
0.096
−0.058
0.591
0.223
0.038
−0.098
0.365
0.260
0.015
−0.119
0.271
−0.178
0.100
0.187
0.082
0.115
0.289
−0.032
0.768
−0.093
0.391
−0.060
0.580
0.088
0.418
0.179
0.097
−0.033
0.768
0.230
0.034
−0.092
0.396
0.492
<0.001
0.242
0.024
0.435
<0.001
0.078
0.471
0.441
<0.001
Bifidobacterium−0.019
0.864
0.073
0.505
0.047
0.668
0.134
0.218
−0.031
0.774
−0.015
0.889
0.025
0.816
−0.024
0.828
0.101
0.353
0.115
0.290
0.189
0.080
0.018
0.866
0.163
0.131
0.125
0.248
0.153
0.157
−0.068
0.533
0.046
0.687
0.047
0.670
0.182
0.092
0.258
0.016
−0.044
0.688
−0.142
0.188
−0.010
0.930
−0.160
0.139
Lactobacillus−0.100
0.356
−0.057
0.597
−0.172
0.112
−0.092
0.398
−0.127
0.241
−0.010
0.924
−0.085
0.433
−0.004
0.974
−0.113
0.297
−0.137
0.205
0.010
0.927
0.050
0.649
0.009
0.933
−0.051
0.640
−0.080
0.464
0.039
0.722
0.088
0.436
0.035
0.752
0.071
0.512
0.268
0.012
−0.139
0.199
0.229
0.033
0.019
0.859
0.224
0.037
Bacteroides−0.102
0.348
−0.078
0.475
0.001
0.996
−0.047
0.667
−0.044
0.685
−0.036
0.738
0.031
0.773
−0.045
0.682
−0.061
0.573
−0.060
0.582
−0.031
0.775
−0.064
0.556
−0.024
0.829
−0.059
0.591
−0.056
0.609
−0.025
0.820
0.053
0.636
0.034
0.754
0.027
0.806
0.230
0.032
−0.122
0.259
0.125
0.250
−0.029
0.789
0.200
0.064
Escherichia coli−0.051
0.642
0.048
0.660
−0.070
0.519
0.041
0.709
0.004
0.968
0.163
0.132
0.018
0.869
0.026
0.815
−0.016
0.884
−0.026
0.813
−0.041
0.709
0.063
0.560
0.063
0.564
−0.060
0.583
0.044
0.688
0.000
1.000
−0.031
0.783
0.001
0.997
−0.058
0.593
−0.075
0.490
−0.033
0.759
0.050
0.648
0.243
0.024
0.260
0.015
Staphylococcus−0.120
0.267
−0.083
0.443
−0.156
0.150
−0.075
0.488
0.049
0.654
0.002
0.988
−0.005
0.961
0.087
0.423
−0.058
0.594
−0.058
0.594
−0.156
0.149
−0.080
0.464
0.067
0.539
−0.130
0.230
0.039
0.721
−0.087
0.424
0.108
0.335
0.020
0.853
0.075
0.492
−0.039
0.723
−0.113
0.298
−0.083
0.447
0.219
0.041
−0.127
0.240
LPS-related biomarkerFaecal LPS0.237
0.027
0.245
0.022
0.053
0.627
0.203
0.059
0.123
0.256
0.203
0.059
0.065
0.548
0.077
0.482
0.233
0.030
0.238
0.027
0.044
0.688
0.097
0.370
−0.029
0.790
−0.033
0.760
0.063
0.564
−0.009
0.933
0.050
0.656
−0.027
0.808
0.006
0.956
0.125
0.248
−0.029
0.793
0.006
0.953
0.037
0.736
Serum LPS0.032
0.766
0.053
0.626
0.112
0.303
0.090
0.405
0.180
0.095
−0.026
0.814
0.155
0.152
0.112
0.303
0.115
0.289
0.159
0.141
−0.163
0.132
−0.177
0.101
−0.022
0.838
0.074
0.494
0.220
0.040
−0.060
0.579
0.010
0.929
0.209
0.053
0.006
0.956
0.085
0.436
0.255
0.017
−0.075
0.491
0.284
0.008
LBP0.300
0.005
0.244
0.023
0.170
0.116
−0.092
0.395
0.025
0.816
0.021
0.844
0.042
0.703
0.065
0.552
0.117
0.279
0.036
0.739
0.497
<0.001
0.697
<0.001
0.234
0.029
0.273
0.010
0.271
0.011
0.546
<0.001
0.004
0.969
0.348
0.001
0.125
0.248
0.085
0.436
0.035
0.748
0.046
0.676
0.247
0.021
ENC0.151
0.164
0.068
0.534
0.229
0.033
−0.063
0.564
−0.037
0.732
−0.024
0.827
0.016
0.886
−0.007
0.948
−0.066
0.545
−0.126
0.245
0.338
0.001
0.289
0.007
−0.137
0.207
−0.012
0.910
−0.142
0.189
0.063
0.564
−0.004
0.969
0.245
0.023
−0.029
0.793
0.255
0.017
0.035
0.748
0.060
0.579
0.321
0.002
Anti-Pg LPSIgG anti-Pg-LPS−0.148
0.170
0.277
0.009
−0.122
0.261
0.218
0.043
0.376
<0.001
0.315
0.003
0.433
<0.001
0.192
0.074
0.308
0.004
0.309
0.004
0.096
0.376
0.039
0.721
−0.016
0.885
−0.003
0.981
−0.100
0.355
0.199
0.065
0.052
0.645
0.129
0.228
IgA anti-Pg-LPS−0.021
0.847
−0.049
0.655
−0.189
0.079
−0.170
0.117
0.071
0.511
−0.108
0.321
−0.031
0.778
−0.020
0.854
−0.013
0.907
−0.010
0.924
0.063
0.561
0.042
0.700
0.238
0.027
0.157
0.146
−0.040
0.713
0.133
0.218
0.122
0.277
−0.125
0.253
  • Bacterial DNA extracted from individual faecal samples was subjected to real time-PCR using the group-specific or species-specific primers. The methods used to analyse LPS-biomarkers and anti-Pg-LPS antibodies are described in references.5 9 12 Patient age, sex, disease duration, treatment with MTX, drinking habits and smoking habits showed little effect on bacterial counts (data not shown).

  • Top values are the slopes of the correlation (correlation coefficient “ρ”) and bottom values are the p values determined by Spearman’s non-parametric rank correlation analysis. dark brown, bold: significant positive correlation (p<0.05); light brown, bold: trend to positive correlation (0.05≤p < 0.1); dark blue, bold: significant negative correlation (p<0.05); light blue, bold: trend to positive correlation (0.05≤p < 0.1).

  • Anti-CCP, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody; CDAI, Clinical Disease Activity Index; CRP, C reactive protein; DAS28-ESR, disease activity score with 28 joint counts-erythrocyte sedimentation rate; EGA, evaluator’s global assessment; ENC, endotoxin neutralising capacity; Hb, haemoglobin; IL-6, interleukin-6; LBP, LPS-binding protein; LPS, lipopolysaccharide; mHAQ, modified Health-Associated Questionnaire; MMP-3, matrix metalloproteinase-3; Pg, Porphyromonas gingivalis; PGA, patient’s global assessment; RA, rheumatoid arthritis; RF, rheumatoid factor; SDAI, Simplified Disease Activity Index; SJC, swollen joint count; TJC, tender joint count; TNF, tumour necrosis factor; VAS, Visual Analogue Scale.