Table 1

Clinical features of two patients with SLE who developed COVID-19

Patient 1Patient 2
Disease duration6.8 years2.1 years
SLE clinical manifestationsOral ulcers, photosensitivity, inflammatory arthralgiaMalar rash, photosensitivity, alopecia, fatigue, inflammatory arthralgia, Raynaud’s phenomenon
SLE-related laboratorial featuresANA (1/320), anti-Sm, anti-dsDNA, LACANA (1/320), anti-Sm, anti-RNP, anti-Ro, anti-dsDNA, leucopenia, neutropenia, hypergammaglobulinaemia
ComorbiditiesChronic urticariaPlaque morphea (childhood onset), hypothyroidism
Smoking statusNon-smoker (ever)Non-smoker (ever)
csDMARDs, dose (duration)HCQ, 400 mg/day (7 years)HCQ, 400 mg/day (2.8 years)
MTX, 15 mg/week (3.5 years)
Glucocorticoids, dose (duration)NoPDN, 5 mg/day (2.1 years)
SLEDAI (prior to COVID-19)00
Epidemiological linkClose contact with confirmed case (colleague)Short close contact (30 min) with two subjects arriving from Madrid (Spain)
Time from contact to symptom onset6 days6 days
COVID-19 symptomsHeadache, myalgia, rhinorrhoea, mild unproductive coughAnosmia, dysgeusia
Time from symptom onset to first positive RT-PCR test8 days5 days
Antiviral treatmentNoNo
Symptom duration16 days7 days
Time from symptom onset to two negative RT-PCR tests26 days28 days
csDMARD discontinuedNoMTX, stopped until recovery
SLE symptoms/flare post-COVID-19Inflammatory arthralgia, oral ulcersNo
Complete recoveryYesYes
  • ACEi, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ANA, antinuclear antibody; ARB, angiotensin-II receptor blocker; csDMARDs, conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs; HCQ, hydroxychloroquine; LAC, lupus anticoagulant; MTX, methotrexate; NSAIDs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; PDN, prednisolone; RNP, ribonucleoprotein; RT-PCR, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction; SLE, systemic lupus erythematosus; SLEDAI, systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index.