Table 1

Baseline characteristics of study participants by glucosamine use

CharacteristicsOverall
(n=495 077)
Glucosamine non-users
(n=400 731)
Glucosamine users
(n=94 346)
Age, mean (SD), years56.55 (8.09)55.95 (8.20)59.08 (7.07)
Women269 549 (54.4)210 497 (52.5)59 052 (62.6)
TDI, mean (SD)−1.31 (3.09)−1.20 (3.14)−1.79 (2.79)
Education
 Degree160 288 (32.4)129 146 (32.2)31 142 (33.0)
 No degree334 789 (67.6)271 585 (67.8)63 204 (67.0)
Ethnicity
 White455 861 (92.1)367 313 (91.7)88 548 (93.9)
 Others39 216 (7.9)33 418 (8.3)5798 (6.1)
Household income (£)
 <18 000116 815 (23.6)95 680 (23.9)21 135 (22.4)
 18 000–30 999127 517 (25.8)100 419 (25.1)27 098 (28.7)
 31 000–51 999127 427 (25.7)102 879 (25.7)24 548 (26.0)
 52 000–100 00097 565 (19.7)80 314 (20.0)17 251 (18.3)
 >100 00025 753 (5.2)21 439 (5.3)4314 (4.6)
BMI, mean (SD), kg/m2 27.43 (4.80)27.45 (4.84)27.36 (4.65)
Smoking status
 Never271 144 (54.8)219 107 (54.7)52 037 (55.2)
 Former171 668 (34.7)135 486 (33.8)36 182 (38.4)
 Current52 265 (10.6)46 138 (11.5)6127 (6.5)
Alcohol consumption
 Never21 931 (4.4)18 688 (4.7)3243 (3.4)
 Former17 858 (3.6)15 136 (3.8)2722 (2.9)
 Current455 288 (92.0)366 907 (91.6)88 381 (93.7)
Physical activity (min/week)
 <150228 019 (46.1)189 753 (47.4)38 266 (40.6)
 ≥150267 058 (53.9)210 978 (52.6)56 080 (59.4)
Vegetable consumption (servings/day)
 <2.097 853 (19.8)83 776 (20.9)14 077 (14.9)
 2.0–3.9222 743 (45.0)179 783 (44.9)42 960 (45.5)
 ≥4.0174 481 (35.2)137 172 (34.2)37 309 (39.5)
Fruit consumption (servings/day)
 <2.0136 458 (27.6)118 612 (29.6)17 846 (18.9)
 2.0–3.9201 446 (40.7)163 136 (40.7)38 310 (40.6)
 ≥4.0157 173 (31.7)118 983 (29.7)38 190 (40.5)
Supplement or drug use
 Vitamin157 133 (31.7)104 719 (26.1)52 414 (55.6)
 Minerals and other dietary supplements184 377 (37.2)118 971 (29.7)65 406 (69.3)
 Aspirin66 052 (13.3)53 402 (13.3)12 650 (13.4)
 Statin56 544 (11.4)46 186 (11.5)10 358 (11.0)
 Non-aspirin NSAIDs71 109 (14.4)53 152 (13.3)17 957 (19.0)
 Chondroitin7813 (1.6)1581 (0.4)6232 (6.6)
Health conditions
 CVD28 709 (5.8)24 621 (6.1)4088 (4.3)
 Cancer39 659 (8.0)31 506 (7.9)8153 (8.6)
 Diabetes25 968 (5.2)22 517 (5.6)3451 (3.7)
 Hypertension279 956 (56.5)225 247 (56.2)54 709 (58.0)
 Respiratory diseases1957 (0.4)1555 (0.4)402 (0.4)
 Digestive diseases1417 (0.3)1259 (0.3)158 (0.2)
 High cholesterol86 406 (17.5)70 408 (17.6)15 998 (17.0)
 Arthritis23 217 (4.7)15 440 (3.9)7777 (8.2)
 Dementia219 (0.0)184 (0.0)35 (0.0)
 Depression76 642 (15.5)53 848 (13.4)15 133 (16.0)
 Longstanding illness162 123 (32.7)131 024 (32.7)31 099 (33.0)
  • Values are numbers (%) unless stated otherwise.

  • BMI, body mass index; CVD, cardiovascular disease; NSAID, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug; TDI, Townsend Deprivation Index.