Table 1

Interventions and therapeutic compounds of trials included for review

InterventionNo of articles/ abstracts*Therapeutic compoundTarget
csDMARDs, csDMARD combination, Glucocorticoids versus other csDMARDs or placebo (10–12 130 131)5Tacrolimus +methotrexate (MTX) versus leflunomide+MTXFKBP12; dihydrofolate reductase +purine metabolism; dihydroorotate dehydrogenase
MTX+sulfasalazine + glucocorticoids versus MTX +glucocorticoids versus MTX +Leflunomide +Glucocorticoids
MTX versus MTX+glucocorticoids
MTX+sulfasalazine + Hydroxychloroquine versus leflunomide +sulfasalazine + hydroxychloroquine versus leflunomide monotherapy
bDMARD ±csDMARDs versus placebo
(13–29 132–136)
Certolizumab pegolTNF
SarilumabIL-6 receptor
MavrilimumabGM-CSF receptor
bDMARDs versus other bDMARDs (4 62–66 137 138)8Rituximab versus etanercept/adalimumabCD-20 versus TNF
ABT-122 versus adalimumabTNF/IL-17A versus TNF
Certolizumab pegol versus adalimumabTNF
Sirukumab versus adalimumabIL-6 versus TNF
Sarilumab versus adalimumabIL-6 receptor versus TNF
Secukinumab versus abataceptIL-17 versus CD-80/CD-86
Mavrilimumab versus golimumabGM-CSF versus TNF
bDMARD induction versus csDMARD induction in early disease (69–72 139)5Certolizumab pegol versus MTXTNF
Abatacept versus MTXCD-80/CD-86
Infliximab versus MTXTNF
Tocilizumab versus MTXIL-6 receptor
Switching between bDMARDs (4 67 68)3Certolizumab pegol versus adalimumabTNF
Abatacept; rituximab; tocilizumab versus adalimumab; certolizumab; infliximab; golimumab; etanerceptCD-80/CD-86; CD-20; IL-6 receptor versus TNF
SarilumabIL-6 receptor
Tapering of bDMARDs/tsDMARDs or csDMARDs (107–124 126–128 140–145)25AbataceptCD-80/CD-86
TocilizumabIL-6 receptor
Adalimumab; certolizumab pegol; etanercept; infliximab;TNF
Strategic studies (6 146)2
tsDMARDs±csDMARDs versus placebo (73–100 125 147–152)32BaricitinibJAK 1/2
DecernotinibJAK 3
FilgotinibJAK 1
PeficitinibJAK 1
TofacitinibJAK 1/3
UpadacitinibJAK 1
tsDMARDs±csDMARDs versus bDMARDs±csDMARDs (101–106)5Baricitinib versus adalimumabJAK 1/2 versus TNF
Tofacitinib versus adalimumabJAK 1/3 versus TNF
Upadacitinib versus adalimumabJAK 1 versus TNF
bsDMARDs versus boDMARDs (30–34 36–55)24Adalimumab: ABP 501, AdaliRel, BI 695501, CinnoRA, FKB327, GP2017, PF-06410293, SB5, ZRC 3197TNF
Etanercept: CHS-0214, GP2015, HD203, LBEC0101TNF
Infliximab: BCD-055, CT-P13, NI-071, PF-06438179/GP1111, SB2TNF
Rituximab: BCD-020, CT-P10, DRL-RI, GP2013CD-20
Switching between bsDMARDs and boDMARDs (32 35 56–61 153)6Adalimumab: SB5TNF
Etanercept: GP2015, CHS-0214, LBEC0101TNF
Infliximab: SB2, CT-P13TNF
  • *Studies answering multiple research questions account for mismatch between included articles/abstracts and numbers in this table. References of manuscripts published after the SLRs data cut, with the respective conference abstracts included before, are shown, but were not counted.

  • bDMARD, biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drug; boDMARD, biooriginator disease-modifying antirheumatic drug; bsDMARD, biosimilar disease-modifying antirheumatic drug; CD, cluster of differentiation; csDMARD, conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug; GM-CSF, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor; IL, interleukin; JAK, Janus kinase; SYK, spleen tyrosine kinase; TNF, tumour necrosis factor; tsDMARD, targeted synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug.