Table 1

Demographics and baseline characteristics of patients with SLE infected with SARS-CoV-2

Women13 (76)
Age, years, median (range)53.5 (26.6–69.2)
SLE16 (94)
Lupus-like syndrome*1 (6)
Antiphospholipid syndrome4 (24)
Disease duration, years, median (range)8.2 (0.8–42.7)
SLICC Damage Index1 (0–8)
Chronic medical illness
Cerebrovascular disease3 (18)
Coronary heart disease or cardiovascular disease2 (12)
Diabetes0 (0)
Body mass index
 Normal (18.5–25)5 (29)
 Overweight (25–30)2 (12)
 Obesity (≥30)10 (59)
Hypertension6 (35)
Malignant tumour1 (6)
Nervous system disease1 (6)
Chronic obstructive lung disease2 (12)
Chronic kidney disease8 (47)
Chronic kidney disease staging
 Mildly decreased (GFR MDRD 89-60 mL/min/1.73 m2)3 (18)
 Mildly to severely decreased (GFR MDRD 59–30 mL/min/1.73 m2)2 (12)
 Severely decreased (GFR MDRD 29–15 mL/min/1.73 m2)0 (0)
 Kidney failure (GFR MDRD <15 mL/min/1.73 m2)3 (18)
Smoking habits
 Never smoker10 (59)
 Ex-smoker5 (29)
 Daily smoker2 (12)
History of thrombosis6 (35)
 Arterial thrombosis3 (18)
 Venous thrombosis4 (24)
Current or history of:
 Arthritis14 (82)
 Mucocutaneous involvement10 (59)
 Lupus nephritis9 (53)
 Serositis9 (53)
 Cytopaenia6 (35)
 Neuropsychiatric lupus4 (24)
Treatment regimen
 HCQ 200 mg/day4 (24)
 HCQ 400 mg/day11 (65)
 HCQ >400 mg/day2 (12)
 Duration of HCQ treatment, years, median (range)7.5 (0.5–29.8)
 Prednisone use12 (71)
 Prednisone ≥10 mg per day2 (12)
 Immunosuppressive agent use†7 (41)
 ACE inhibitors and/or ARBs6 (35)
 Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs0 (0)
 Oral anticoagulant‡5 (29)
SLE activity
 Clinical manifestation of SLE1 (6)
 Positive anti-dsDNA test6 (35)
 Low C32 (12)
  • Values are expressed as n (%), unless stated otherwise.

  • *Patients who fulfilled only 2–3 1997 American College of Rheumatology criteria for SLE were classified as antiphospholipid syndrome (APLS) associated with lupus-like syndrome.

  • †Excluding antimalarials and prednisone. Immunosuppressant therapy was mycophenolate mofetil for five patients and methotrexate for two.

  • ‡Oral anticoagulant was warfarin for three patients, fluindione for one and rivaroxaban for one.

  • ACE, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin II receptor blockers; dsDNA, double-stranded DNA antibodies; GFR, glomerular filtration rate; HCQ, hydroxychloroquine; MDRD, Modification of Diet in Renal Disease; SARS-CoV-2, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; SLE, systemic lupus erythematosus; SLICC Damage Index, Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index.