Table 1

Questions to be addressed by the SLR and final number of articles included

Diagnosis and classification of LNTotal number of articles included
1. What is the prognostic significance of kidney biopsy findings?33
2. Risk stratification of patients with LN by incorporating demographic, clinical and histological data64
Pharmacological treatment of LN
3. What is the evidence for the benefits and harms of HCQ in LN?16
4. ‘Induction’ therapies in LN (including dosage of glucocorticoids and use of CNIs)127
5. ‘Maintenance’ therapies in LN (including dosage of glucocorticoids, and use of CNIs)
Monitoring and therapeutic targets
6. How should LN be monitored?85
7. What is the goal of treatment in LN?18
8. Duration of immunosuppressive treatment in LN16
Refractory LN
9. What is the definition of refractory LN?13
10.How should refractory/flaring LN be treated?36
Special topics in LN
11.Management of LN during pregnancy and lactation17
12.Management of antiphospholipid syndrome nephropathy18
Chronic kidney disease in LN
13.Management of end-stage renal disease in LN42
14. Renal transplantation in patients with LN44
Comorbidities and adjunct therapy in LN
15.Comorbidities in LN (cardiovascular, infections)49
  • The number of included studies refers to studies published after January 2012. The final LoE and GoRs considered the total body of evidence, including the 2012 recommendations for LN.

  • CNIs, calcineurin inhibitors; GoRs, grading of recommendations; HCQ, hydroxychloroquine; LN, lupus nephritis; LoE, level of evidence; SLR, systematic literature review.