Table 3

Clinical manifestations and treatment of flares according to treatment group

PatientTime to flare (days)Clinical manifestationsFlare according to SFISELENA-SLEDAI scorePGAFlare according to
BILAG 2004 index
BILAG 2004 scoreTreatment
Prednisone maintenance group
 # 23313Arthritis, diffuse alopecia, constitutional signsMild/moderate101.1Mild1B, 2CPred 15 mg/day
 # 76358Arthritis, nephritis (class V), leucopeniaSevere131.5Severe1A, 1B, 1CPred 30 mg/day+MMF 2 g/day
 # 108336Mucosal ulcers, mild arthritis, lymphopeniaMild/moderate40.4Mild3CNo change
 # 109267Arthritis, diffuse alopeciaMild/moderate101.0Mild1B, 1CPred 10 mg/day
Prednisone withdrawal group
 # 499Arthritis, mucosal ulcers, subacute cutaneous lupus, malar rash, lymphopeniaMild/moderate81.5Moderate2B, 1CPred 10 mg/day+↗ HCQ 600 mg/day+TLD 100 mg/day
 # 19324Subacute cutaneous lupus, diffuse alopecia, leucopeniaMild/moderate70.7Mild1B, 2C↗ HCQ 600 mg/day
 # 27285Constitutional signs, psychosis (catatonia), nephritis (class V)Severe192.6Severe3APred 10 mg/day+MMF 2 g/day+plasmapheresis
 # 4041Pericarditis, arthritisSevere62.1Severe1A, 1BIVMP followed by pred 30 mg/day+MTX 15 mg/week+belimumab
 # 43179Malar rash, diffuse alopeciaMild/moderate41.0Mild1B, 1CNo change
 # 5642Subacute cutaneous lupus, arthritisMild/moderate61.0Moderate2BPred 5 mg/day
 # 58237ArthritisSevere41.0Severe1AIVMP followed by pred 15 mg/day
 # 59163Arthritis, diffuse alopeciaMild/moderate80.9Mild1B, 1CPred 5 mg/day
 # 7135Cranial neuropathy (acute hearing loss)Severe101.4Severe1AIVMP followed by pred 60 mg/day
 # 72364ArthritisMild/moderate40.9Mild1BPred 10 mg/day+↗ MTX 15 mg/week
 # 7786Arthritis, diffuse alopeciaMild/moderate100.9Mild1B, 1CPred 15 mg/day
 # 78182Arthritis, lymphopeniaMild/moderate61.0Mild1B, 1CPred 15 mg/day
 # 8270ArthritisMild/moderate60.9Mild1BPred 15 mg/day
 # 91112Arthritis, rash, diffuse alopecia, thrombocytopeniaMild/moderate111.0Moderate2B, 2CPred 10 mg/day
 #94135ArthritisMild/moderate40.9Mild1BPred 10 mg/day
 # 95321Nephritis (class V)Severe61.5Severe1AMMF 2 g/day
 #107100Arthritis, constitutional signsMild/moderate80.9Mild1B, 1CPred 15 mg/day
  • Cytopenia was defined as leucopenia <3 g/L, lymphopenia <1 g/L and thrombocytopenia <100 g/L.

  • ↗, increase; BILAG, British Isles Lupus Assessment Group;HCQ, hydroxychloroquine; IVMP, intravenous high-dose methylprednisolone; MMF, mycophenolate mofetil; MTX, methotrexate; PGA, Physician’s Global Assessment; pred, prednisone; SELENA-SLEDAI, Safety of Estrogens in Lupus Erythematosus:National Assessment version of the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index;SFI, SELENA-SLEDAI flare index; TLD, thalidomide.