Table 1

Prevalence of cardiac involvement in patients with anti-Ku autoantibodies and controls

First author, year of publicationStudied populationPatients assessed for heart involvement, nDefinition for heart involvementPrevalence of heart involvement,
n/total (%(95% CI))
Risk of heart involvement,
(95% CI)
Anti-Ku patientsControl patients
Parodi, 19897Any CTD3Abnormal ECG, echocardiogram, chest X-ray film, (depending on the patients)1/3 (33)No control group
Hausmanova, 19978Myositis50Palpitation3/7 (43)18/43 (42)1.04 (0.21 to 5.24)
Rozman, 20079SSc52Palpitation or conduction block or abnormal diastolic function or reduced ventricular ejection fraction*3/14 (21)8/38 (21)1.02 (0.23 to 4.57)
Rodriguez-Reyna, 201110SSc60LVEF <45% or pericarditis by echocardiogram or CMR, or arrhythmia requiring treatment, or conduction defect3/6† (50)4/54‡ (7)12.50 (1.88 to 83.3)
Lakota, 201211Any CTD73Palpitations, conduction blocks, abnormal diastolic function14/73 (19)No control group
Cruellas, 201312Myositis222Myocarditis or heart failure, as revealed by myocardial scintigraphy and echocardiogram examination0/9 (0)0/2131.00 (0.00 to 21163)
Kaji, 201413SSc127Clinical evidence of symptomatic pericardial effusion, congestive heart failure, or an arrhythmia considered to be due to SSc requiring treatment8/40 (20)16/87 (18)1.11 (0.43 to 2.86)
Spielmann, 20192Any CTD42Clinical congestive heart failure and positive CMR1/42 (2)No control group
Campochiaro, 20191SScNot reportedNew onset cardiac signs and/or symptoms, raised troponin T and/or NTproBNP and positive CMR4/4 (100)No control group
-All studies, test of heterogeneity: p<0.001
(I2=81.8%, τ2=1.91, H=2.34)
Controlled studies, OR test of heterogeneity: p=0.226
(I2=29.3%, τ2=0.29, H=1.19)

8.5 (1.4 to 37.6)

  • Result of meta-analysis are in bold.

  • *For each definition, the highest prevalence reported was taken into account.

  • †Sample numbers are derived from the 10% prevalence in the whole cohort.

  • ‡Sample numbers are derived from the 90% prevalence in the whole cohort).

  • §Result of the random effect (with a constant continuity correction of 0.5 for analysis of proportions and “treatment arm” continuity correction for pooling ORs).

  • CMR, cardiac magnetic resonance; CTD, connective tissue disoders; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction ;SSc, systemic sclerosis .