Table 1

Characteristics of the 97 patients with sicca syndrome included in the study

pSS, n (%)sSS, n (%)Controls, n (%)P value*
n392236
Age (±SD)59.1±13.455.3±15.055.8±11.9ns
Women36 (92.3)22 (100)34 (94.4)ns
Non-specific autoimmune disease associated
 None (n=62)39 (100)023 (63.9)<0.05†‡§
 Rheumatoid arthritis (n=14)09 (41.0)5 (13.9)<0.05†
 Systemic lupus (n=16)09 (41.0)7 (19.4)<0.05†‡
 Others¶ (n=7)04 (18.0)3 (12.0)ns
Clinical sicca syndrome
 Duration of sicca syndrome <5 years12 (30.8)6 (27.3)17 (47.2)ns
 Schirmer test (±SD)5.36±7.101.27±1.839.32±9.310.001‡§
 Schirmer test <5 mm28 (71.8)22 (100)14 (38.9)<0.05‡
 Unstimulated salivary flow (±SD)1.3±1.261.2±0.962.1±1.500.02‡§
 Unstimulated salivary flow <0.5 mL/5 min14 (35.9)9 (40.9)0<0.05‡§
Biology
 ANA ≥1/32031 (79.5)19 (86.4)11 (30.6)<0.05‡§
 SSA antibodies30 (76.9)11 (50.0)9 (25.0)<0.05†‡§
 Rheumatoid factor22 (56.4)13 (59.1)8 (22.2)ns
 Hypergammaglobulinemia >16 g/L19 (48.7)4 (18.2)4 (11.1)<0.05†‡
Salivary gland involvement
 Focus score (±SD)2.57±4.421.91±1.530.72±1.82<0.05‡§
 Focus score=1/4 mm²34 (97.1)19 (90.5)5 (17.2)<0.05‡§
 Pathological salivary glands in ultrasound24 (61.5)13 (33.3)2 (5.1)<0.05‡§
Systemic complications
 Lymphoma3 (7.7)00ns
 Cryoglobulinemic vasculitis3 (7.7)2 (9.0)1 (2.8)ns
 Severe systemic complications (composite index)**7 (17.9)8 (36.4)3 (8.3)<0.05†‡
  • *Difference between two groups according to χ2 test adjusted by Bonferroni's method for qualitative variables or by ANOVA for quantitative variables. Univariate analyses, all preformed with SPSS.

  • †pSS versus sSS.

  • ‡ pSS versus controls.

  • §sSS versus control.

  • ¶Others non-specific autoimmune diseases associated: systemic sclerosis (n=4), mixed connective tissue disease (n =3).

  • **Composite index: interstitial lung disease, proliferative glomerulonephritis, central nervous system involvement, cryoglobulinemic vasculitis or lymphoma.

  • ANA, anti-nuclear antibodies; pSS, primary Sjogren’s syndrome; sSS, secondary Sjogren’s syndrome.