Table 1

Descriptive statistics of study population

FEPRA study (n=80)Generation R Study (n=354)
Age child* (years), mean (SD)6.8 (1.3)†6.0 (0.4)†
BMI SDS child,* mean (SD)−0.14 (0.87)†0.18 (0.74)†
Sex of the child
 Male, n (%)46 (57.5)176 (49.7)
 Female, n (%)34 (42.5)178 (50.3)
Maternal age at delivery (years), mean (SD)32.9 (3.9)32.5 (4.0)
Gestational age (weeks), mean (SD)39.5 (2.0)†40.2 (1.5)†
Gestational age <37 weeks, n (%)8 (10.0)†6 (1.7)†
Folic acid
 Start before pregnancy, n (%)25 (31.3)†212 (59.9)†
 Start in early pregnancy, n (%)19 (23.8)†116 (32.8)†
 No use, n (%)36 (45.0)†26 (7.3)†
SES based on educational level
 Low, n (%)9 (11.3)†4 (1.1)†
 Middle, n (%)33 (41.3)†108 (30.5)†
 High, n (%)38 (47.5)†242 (68.4)†
 Maternal smoking,‡ n (%)1 (1.3)†86 (24.3)†
 DAS28-CRP(3) third trimester, mean (SD)3.3 (1.1)
Use of medication ≥1 trimester
 Only prednisone use, n (%)17 (21.3)
 Only sulfasalazine use, n (%)14 (17.5)
 Combination, n (%)13 (16.3)
Prednisone dose (mg), median (IQR)
 First trimester7.5 (2.5–10.0)
 Second trimester7.5 (5.0–10.0)
 Third trimester6.3 (5.0–10.0)
No medication use, n (%)36 (45.0)
Fat percentage SDS, mean (SD)0.24 (0.97)
  • *At time of the blood sampling.

  • †P<0.001.

  • ‡During pregnancy.

  • BMI, body mass index; DAS28-CRP(3), Disease Activity Score in 28 joints using C reactive protein levels; FEPRA, FEtal Programming in Rheumatoid Arthritis; SDS, SD score; SES, socioeconomic status.