Table 1

International osteoarthritis diagnosis and treatment guidelines

GuidelinesRecommended usage
AAOSPatients with knee OA and high risk of gastrointestinal tract: topical NSAIDs and non-selective oral NSAIDs combined with gastrointestinal protection agents.
AGSPatients with local non-neuronal persistent pain: topical NSAIDs.
EULARPatients with hand osteoarthritis: topical medication is better than systemic treatment.
Patients with knee osteoarthritis: topical NSAIDs are effective and safe.
NICEPatients with knee or hand OA: to add topical NSAIDs based on core therapy to relieve pain. Topical NSAIDs should be used prior to oral NSAIDs, cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors or opioids.
OARSIPatients with knee OA: topical NSAIDs are effective adjuvant therapy and alternative treatment for oral analgesic/anti-inflammatory treatment.
  • AAOS, American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons; AGS, American Geriatrics Society; EULAR, The European League Against Rheumatism; NICE, The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence; NSAID, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug; OA, osteoarthritis; OARSI, Osteoarthritis Research Society International.