Table 1

Patients’ demographic and clinical characteristics, overall and per country

CountryHDI rank (2013)GDP* per capita adjusted to PPP, in international dollars (2013)**Age, mean (SD)Gender (% male)ASDAS, mean (SD)ASDAS ≥2.1, n (%)BASFI, mean (SD)University diploma, n (%)Secondary education, n (%)Low education, n (%)Current smokers, n (%)bDMARDs current use, n (%)
Argentina (n=178)sam Very high 22 404 44 (14)651.87 (1.10)73 (43)3.17 (2.87)67 (38)80 (45)31 (17)92 (52)59 (32)
Belgium (n=35)eu Very high42 07751 (11)741.98 (1.20)12 (35)3.36 (2.50)8 (23)25 (71)2 (6)24 (69)26 (78)
Canada (n=37)nam Very high43 58941 (13)621.89 (1.07)14 (42)2.56 (2.32)16 (46)15 (43)4 (11)24 (65)14 (39)
China (n=226)as High 11 885 29 (8)822.37 (1.12)124 (55)1.66 (2.06)99 (44)107 (47)20 (9)90 (40)12 (5)
Colombia (n=37)sam High 12 806 43 (15)572.30 (0.80)24 (67)4.56 (2.14)20 (54)10 (27)7 (19)15 (41)25 (62)
Egypt (n=211)af Medium 10 741 39 (13)552.28 (0.85)119 (57)4.18 (2.68)125 (59)61 (29)25 (12)49 (23)50 (25)
France (n=286)eu Very high39 81846 (13)611.97 (1.01)107 (39)2.73 (2.29)119 (42)116 (41)51 (18)185 (65)193 (69)
Germany (n=172)eu Very high44 69647 (13)552.72 (0.99)123 (72)4.84 (2.59)19 (11)152 (88)1 (1)122 (71)69 (38)
Italy (n=198)eu Very high35 28446 (13)391.86 (0.99)77 (39)3.06 (2.74)23 (12)144 (73)31 (16)60 (30)56 (28)
Japan (n=124)as Very high36 79347 (14)692.04 (1.20)52 (46)2.12 (2.69)66 (55)55 (45)0 (0)73 (59)31 (28)
Mexico (n=65)sam High 17 449 42 (17)751.88 (1.34)25 (40)3.85 (3.00)39 (60)19 (29)7 (11)25 (38)12 (19)
Morocco (n=97)af Medium 7356 42 (12)662.78 (1.14)66 (70)4.42 (2.58)31 (32)22 (23)44 (45)24 (25)22 (22)
The Netherlands (n=153)eu Very high46 43450 (13)652.06 (0.88)64 (45)2.83 (2.49)53 (35)92 (60)8 (5)84 (55)51 (35)
Portugal (n=65)eu Very high 26 188 47 (12)652.37 (1.18)18 (51)3.09 (2.62)25 (39)19 (30)20 (31)29 (45)22 (34)
Russia (n=192)eu High 24 297 36 (9)742.40 (1.02)114 (59)4.25 (2.58)136 (71)54 (28)2 (1)41 (21)91 (47)
Singapore (n=172)as Very high80 29539 (13)831.67 (0.89)34 (27)2.20 (2.27)75 (44)84 (49)13 (8)62 (36)36 (19)
South Korea (n=195)as Very high33 79138 (12)831.47 (0.96)44 (23)1.65 (2.11)130 (67)63 (32)2 (1)102 (52)98 (51)
Spain (n=212)eu Very high 32 680 48 (13)741.44 (0.96)52 (25)2.82 (2.40)56 (26)94 (44)62 (29)123 (58)114 (56)
Taiwan (n=193)as Missing43 67741 (12)681.63 (0.87)50 (26)2.30 (2.34)120 (62)66 (34)7 (4)76 (39)45 (22)
Turkey (n=199)eu High 18 993 41 (11)631.91 (0.85)74 (39)2.73 (2.40)49 (25)71 (36)79 (40)112 (56)73 (38)
UK (n=184)eu Very high38 22450 (14)662.33 (1.13)82 (57)4.72 (3.00)77 (42)104 (57)3 (2)103 (56)90 (47)
USA (n=139)nam Very high52 93951 (12)491.67 (1.05)39 (33)3.38 (2.73)93 (67)44 (32)2 (1)55 (40)86 (64)
Total (n=3370) 43 (14) 66 2.02 (1.07) 1387 (44) 3.10 (2.69) 1446 (43) 1497 (45) 421 (13) 1570 (47) 1275 (38)
  • Results reflect mean (SD) or n (%).

  • *Low GDP (lowest tertile) is in bold.

  • ASDAS, Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score; BASFI, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index; GDP, gross domestic product; HDI, Human Development Index; PPP, purchasing power parity; af, Africa; as, Asia; bDMARD, biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic agent; eu, Europe; nam, North America; sam, South America.