Table 1

Technologies for genetic editing and their relative advantages and disadvantages based on the existing literature

TechniqueEfficiencyIndelsOff-target effectsEase of use
SSO++ + ++ + ++
Meganuclease++ + ++ + ++
ZFN+ ++ + ++ + ++
TALEN+ ++ + ++ + ++ +
CRISPR/Cas9+ ++ ++ ++ + +
Base editing+ + ++++ + +
  • CRISPR, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat; SSO, single-stranded oligonucleotide; TALEN, transcription activator-like effector nuclease; ZFN, zinc-finger nuclease.