Cox model using baseline DLCO as covariateCox model using DLCO as time-dependent covariateJoint model using DLCO as a time-dependent covariate
HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)
DLCO models
Baseline MRSS1.56 (0.92 to 2.67)1.86 (1.00 to 3.47)1.85 (1.07 to 3.19)*
Age (years)1.08 (1.03 to 1.13)***1.08 (1.02 to 1.15)**1.07 (1.03 to 1.12)**
DLCO%-predicted0.95 (0.85 to 1.06)0.83 (0.72 to 0.96)*0.84 (0.76 to 0.94)**
AIC249150360
  • AIC, Akaike information criterion; DLCO, single-breath diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide; FVC, forced vital capacity; MRSS, Modified Rodnan Skin Score.

  • *P<0.01, **P<0.01, ***P<0.001.

  • †P<0.0001.