Table 3

GLADEL–PANLAR recommendations for cardiac and pulmonary manifestations

Treatment recommendationsQuality of the evidenceStrength of recommendation
Cardiac manifestations
In adult patients with lupus-related acute pericarditis
Use SOC plus colchicine over SOC plus NSAIDs or belimumab.LowWeak
Pulmonary manifestations
In adult patient with lupus-related diffuse alveolar haemorrhage
Use intravenous GCs plus CYC and/or intravenous Ig and/or TPE and/or RTX over GCs alone.Very lowStrong*
  • *Strong recommendation supported on possible benefits in the context of a life-threatening situation.

  • CYC, cyclophosphamide; GC, glucocorticoid; GLADEL, Grupo Latino Americano de Estudio del Lupus; Ig, immunoglobulin; NSAID, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug; PANLAR, Pan-American League of Associations of Rheumatology; RTX, rituximab; SOC, standard of care; TPE, therapeutic plasma exchange.